Postpartum bonding: the role of perinatal depression, anxiety and maternal–fetal bonding during pregnancy
- 3.5k Downloads
Adverse effects of perinatal depression on the mother–child interaction are well documented; however, the influence of maternal–fetal bonding during pregnancy on postpartum bonding has not been clearly identified. The subject of this study was to investigate prospectively the influence of maternal–fetal bonding and perinatal symptoms of anxiety and depression on postpartum mother–infant bonding. Data from 80 women were analyzed for associations of symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as maternal bonding during pregnancy to maternal bonding in the postpartum period using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R), the Maternal–Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ-16). Maternal education, MFAS, PRAQ-R, EPDS and STAI-T significantly correlated with the PBQ-16. In the final regression model, MFAS and EPDS postpartum remained significant predictors of postpartum bonding and explained 20.8 % of the variance. The results support the hypothesized negative relationship between maternal–fetal bonding and postpartum maternal bonding impairment as well as the role of postpartum depressive symptoms. Early identification of bonding impairment during pregnancy and postpartum depression in mothers plays an important role for the prevention of potential bonding impairment in the early postpartum period.
KeywordsPostpartum depression Anxiety Pregnancy Maternal–fetal attachment Postpartum bonding
We would like to thank the women who were willing to participate in this study. Furthermore, we would like to thank Professor Bea Van den Bergh for providing us with her revised version of the MFAS.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Brockington I (2004) Postpartum psychiatric disorders. The Lancet, 363(9405). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15390-1
- Carter CS, Keverne EB (2002) The neurobiology of social affiliation and pair bonding. In: Pfaff DW, Arnold AP, Etgen AM, Fahrbach SE, Rubin RT (eds) Hormones, brain and behaviour, Vol. 1, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 299–337Google Scholar
- Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- Edhborg M, Nasreen H-E, Kabir ZN (2011) Impact of postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on mothers’ emotional tie to their infants 2–3 months postpartum: a population-based study from rural Bangladesh. Arch Womens Ment Health 14(4):307–316. doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0221-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feldman R, Weller A, Zagoory-Sharon O, Levine A (2007) Evidence for a neuroendocrinological foundation of human affiliation: plasma oxytocin levels across pregnancy and the postpartum period predict mother–infant bonding. Psychol Sci 18(11):965–970. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02010.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, Melville JL, Iyengar S, Katon WJ (2010) A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(10):1012–1024. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.111 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laux L, Glanzmann P, Schaffner P, Spielberger CD (1970) Das State–Trait-Angstinventar. Beltz Test, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
- Matthey S, Ross-Hamid C (2012) Repeat testing on the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the HADS-A in pregnancy: Differentiating between transient and enduring distress. J Affect Disord 141(2–3):213–221. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.037
- Raphael-Leff J (2001) Pregnancy: the inside story. Karnac Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Reck C, Klier CM, Pabst K, Stehle E, Steffenelli U, Struben K, Backenstrass M (2006) The German version of the Postpartum Bonding Instrument: psychometric properties and association with postpartum depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 9(5):265–271. doi: 10.1007/s00737-006-0144-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1970) State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, manual for the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologist Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
- Van den Bergh B (1989) De emotionele toestand van de (zwangere) vrouw, obstetrische complicaties en het gedrag en de ontwikkeling van de foetus en van het kind tot de leeftijd van zeven maanden. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Catholic University of LeuvenGoogle Scholar
- Van den Bergh BR (1990) The influence of maternal emotions during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal behavior. J Prenat Perinat Psychol Health 5(2):119–130Google Scholar
- Waters E, Merrick S, Treboux D, Crowell J, Albersheim L (2003) Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood: a twenty-year longitudinal study. In: Hertzig ME, Farber EA (eds) Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development: 2000–2001. Brunner-Routledge, New York, pp 63–72Google Scholar