Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 221–228 | Cite as

Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors

  • C. Rubertsson
  • J. Hellström
  • M. CrossEmail author
  • G. Sydsjö
Original Article


Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78 %) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8–12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores ≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6 % in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7–4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7–7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1–2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1–5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1–2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6–5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5–7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9–4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0–2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.


Pregnancy Anxiety Anxiety disorder Hospital anxiety and depression scale 



Thanks to Karin Monsen Börjesson and all the midwives who participated in the recruitment process to the Betti-study.

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to report.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Rubertsson
    • 1
  • J. Hellström
    • 1
  • M. Cross
    • 4
    Email author
  • G. Sydsjö
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Obstetrics and GynecologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  3. 3.Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in LinköpingCounty Council of ÖstergötlandLinköpingSweden
  4. 4.Rural Health Academic CenterThe University of MelbourneSheppartonAustralia

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