Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 465–473

The EPDS-Lifetime: assessment of lifetime prevalence and risk factors for perinatal depression in a large cohort of depressed women

  • Samantha Meltzer-Brody
  • Lynn Boschloo
  • Ian Jones
  • Patrick F. Sullivan
  • Brenda W. Penninx
Original Article

Abstract

Perinatal depression (PND) is a common complication of pregnancy and postpartum associated with significant morbidity. We had three goals: (1) to explore the performance of a new lifetime version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-Lifetime) to assess lifetime prevalence of PND; (2) to assess prevalence of lifetime PND in women with prior histories of major depressive episode (MDE); and (3) to evaluate risk factors for PND. Subjects were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The EPDS was modified by adding lifetime PND screening questions, assessing worst episode, and symptom timing of onset. Of 682 women with lifetime MDD and a live birth, 276 (40.4 %) had a positive EPDS score of ≥12 consistent with PND. Women with PND more often sought professional help (p < 0.001) and received treatment (p = 0.001). Independent risk indicators for PND included younger age, higher education, high neuroticism, childhood trauma, and sexual abuse. We found that two in five parous women with a history of MDD had lifetime PND and that the PND episodes were more severe than MDD occurring outside of the perinatal period. The EPDS-Lifetime shows promise as a tool for assessing lifetime histories of PND in clinical and research settings.

Keywords

Perinatal depression Postpartum depression Major depression Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Risk factors Sexual abuse Trauma 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samantha Meltzer-Brody
    • 1
  • Lynn Boschloo
    • 2
  • Ian Jones
    • 4
  • Patrick F. Sullivan
    • 1
    • 5
  • Brenda W. Penninx
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, CB# 7160University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.University Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and EMGO InstituteVU University Medical Center AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical NeurosciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  5. 5.Department of GeneticsUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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