Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 279–291 | Cite as

ISPMD consensus on the management of premenstrual disorders

  • Tracy Nevatte
  • Patrick Michael Shaughn O’Brien
  • Torbjorn Bäckström
  • Candace Brown
  • Lorraine Dennerstein
  • Jean Endicott
  • C. Neill Epperson
  • Elias Eriksson
  • Ellen W. Freeman
  • Uriel Halbreich
  • Khalid Ismail
  • Nicholas Panay
  • Teri Pearlstein
  • Andrea Rapkin
  • Robert Reid
  • David Rubinow
  • Peter Schmidt
  • Meir Steiner
  • John Studd
  • Inger Sundström-Poromaa
  • Kimberly Yonkers
  • Consensus Group of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders
Original Article


The second consensus meeting of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD) took place in London during March 2011. The primary goal was to evaluate the published evidence and consider the expert opinions of the ISPMD members to reach a consensus on advice for the management of premenstrual disorders. Gynaecologists, psychiatrists, psychologists and pharmacologists each formally presented the evidence within their area of expertise; this was followed by an in-depth discussion leading to consensus recommendations. This article provides a comprehensive review of the outcomes from the meeting. The group discussed and agreed that careful diagnosis based on the recommendations and classification derived from the first ISPMD consensus conference is essential and should underlie the appropriate management strategy. Options for the management of premenstrual disorders fall under two broad categories, (a) those influencing central nervous activity, particularly the modulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin and (b) those that suppress ovulation. Psychotropic medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, probably acts by dampening the influence of sex steroids on the brain. Oral contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol and estradiol all most likely function by ovulation suppression. The role of oophorectomy was also considered in this respect. Alternative therapies are also addressed, with, e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, calcium supplements and Vitex agnus castus warranting further exploration.


Premenstrual syndrome Premenstrual dysphoric disorder Variant premenstrual disorder Core premenstrual disorder Premenstrual exacerbation PMS PMDD 


  1. American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed, text revision. Washington: The AssociationGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersch B, Wendestam C, Hahn L, Ohman R (1986) Premenstrual complaints. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms in a Swedish urban population. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 5:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andréen L, Nyberg S, Turkmen S, van Wingen G, Fernández G, Bäckström T (2009) Sex steroid induced negative mood may be explained by the paradoxical effect mediated by GABAA modulators. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:1121–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angst J, Sellaro R, Merikangas KR, Endicott J (2001) The epidemiology of perimenstrual psychological symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand 104:110–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bäckström T, Boyl H, Baird DT (1981) Persistence of symptoms of premenstrual tension in hysterectomized women. Br J Obstet Gynaec 88:530–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bäckström T, Sanders D, Leask RM, Davidson D, Warner P, Bancroft J (1983) Mood, sexuality, hormones and the menstrual cycle. II. Hormone levels and their relationship to premenstrual syndrome. Psychosom Med 45:503–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bäckström T, Hansson-Malmström Y, Lindhe BA, Cavalli-Björkman B, Nordenström S (1992) Contraception 46:253–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bäckström T, Haage D, Löfgren M, Johansson IM, Strömberg J, Nyberg S, Andréen L, Ossewaarde L, Wingen GA, Turkmen S, Bengtsson SK (2011) Paradoxical effects of GABA-A modulators may explain sex steroid induced negative mood symptoms in some persons. Neuroscience 191:46–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker LJ, O’Brien PMS (2012) Potential strategies to avoid progestogen-induced premenstrual disorders. Menopause Int 18:73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Björn I, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Nyberg S, Backstrom G, Backstrom T (2003) Increase of estrogen dose deteriorates mood during progestin phase in sequential hormonal therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2026–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borenstein JE, Dean BB, Yonkers KA, Endicott J (2007) Using the daily record of severity of problems as a screening instrument for premenstrual syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 109:1068–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown CS, Ling FW, Andersen RN, Farmer RG, Arheart KL (1994) Efficacy of depot leuprolide in premenstrual syndrome: effect of symptom severity and type in a controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 84:779–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown J, O’Brien PMS, Marjoribanks J, Wyatt K (2009) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2, CD001396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Busse JW, Montori VM, Krasnik C, Patelis-Siotis I, Guyatt GH (2009) Psychological intervention for premenstrual syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychother Psychosom 78:6–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casper RF, Hearn MT (1990) The effect of hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy on women with severe premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:105–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casson P, Hahn PM, Van Vugt DA, Reid RL (1990) Lasting response to ovariectomy in severe intractable premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan AF, Mortola JF, Wood SH, Yen SS (1994) Persistence of premenstrual syndrome during low-dose administration of the progesterone antagonist RU 486. Obstet Gynecol 84:1001–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen LS, Soares CN, Otto MW, Sweeney BH, Liberman RF, Harlow BL (2002a) Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in older premenopausal women. The Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. J Affect Disord 70:125–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen LS, Miner C, Brown EW, Freeman E, Halbreich U, Sundell K, McCray S (2002b) Premenstrual daily fluoxetine for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a placebo-controlled, clinical trial using computerized diaries. Obstet Gynecol 100:435–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cronje WH, Vashisht A, Studd JW (2004) Hyseterctomy and bilateral oophorectomy for severe premenstrual syndrome. Hum Reprod 19:2152–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daley A (2009) Exercise and premenstrual symptomatology: a comprehensive review. J Women Health (Larchmt) 18:895–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dante G, Facchinetti F (2011) Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 32:42–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deeny M, Hawthorn R, McKay HD (1991) Low dose danazol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Postgrad Med J 67:450–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dennerstein L, Lehert P, Keung LS, Pal S, Choi D (2010a) Asian study of effects of premenstrual symptoms on activities of daily life. Menopause Int 16:146–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dennerstein L, Lehert P, Bäckström TC, Heinemann K (2010b) The effect of premenstrual symptoms on activities of daily life. Fertil Steril 94:1059–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dennerstein L, Lehert P, Heinemann K (2011) Global study of women’s experiences of premenstrual symptoms and their effects on daily life. Menopause Int 17:88–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deuster P, Adera T, South-Paul J (1999) Biological, social, and behavioral factors associated with premenstrual syndrome. Arch Fam Med 8:122–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dimmock PW, Wyatt KM, Jones PW, O'Brien PM (2000) Efficacy of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in premenstrual syndrome; a systematic review. Lancet 356:1131–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elovainio M, Teperi J, Aalto AM (2007) Depressive symptoms as predictors of discontinuation of Levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system. Int J Behav Med 14:70–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Endicott J, Nee J, Harrison W (2006) Daily record of severity of problems (DRSP): reliability and validity. Arch Womens Ment Health 9:41–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Epperson CN, Haga K, Mason GF, Sellers E, Gueorguieva R, Zhang W, Weiss E, Rothman DL, Krystal JH (2002) Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Arch Gen Psych 59:851–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Epperson CN, Steiner M, Hartlage SA, Eriksoon E, Schmidt P, Jones I, Yonkers KA (2012) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: evidence for a new category for DSM-5. Am J Psych 169:465–75Google Scholar
  33. Eriksson E, Hedberg MA, Andersch B, Sundblad C (1995) The serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetin is superior to the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor maprotiline in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology 12:167–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eriksson E, Ekman A, Sinclair S, Sörvik K, Ysander C, Mattson UB, Nissbrandt H (2008) Escitalopram administered in the luteal phase exerts a marked and dose-dependent effect in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 28:195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freeman EW, Sondheimer SJ, Rickels K (1997) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the treatment of premenstrual symptoms with and without ongoing dysphoria: a controlled study. Psychopharmacol Bull 33:303–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Freeman EW, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M (1999) Differential response to antidepressants in women with premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:932–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Freeman EW, Kroll R, Rapkin A, Pearlstein T, Brown C, Parsey K, Zhang P, Patel H, Foegh M (2001) Evaluation of a unique oral contraceptive in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 10:561–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Freeman EW, Stout AL, Endicott J, Spiers P (2002) Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a carbohydrate-rich beverage. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 77:253–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Rickels K, Sondheimer J (2011) Clinical subtypes of premenstrual syndrome and responses to sertraline treatment. Obstet Gynecol 118:1293–1300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman EW, Halbreich U, Grubb GS, Rapkin AJ, Skouby SO, Smith L, Mirkin S, Constantine GD (2012) An overview of four studies of a continuous oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel 90 mcg/ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome. Contraception 85:437–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Graham CA, Sherwin BB (1992) A prospective treatment study of premenstrual symptoms using a triphasic oral contraceptive. J Psychosom Res 36:257–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hahn PM, Van Vugt DA, Reid RL (1995) A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of danazol for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 20:193–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Halbreich U, Bergeron R, Yonkers KA, Freeman E, Stout AL, Cohen L (2002) Efficacy of intermittent, luteal phase sertraline treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol 100:1219–1229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Halbreich U, Borenstein J, Pearlstein T, Kahn LS (2003) The prevalence, impairment, impact, and burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(suppl 3):1–23Google Scholar
  45. Halbreich U, Freeman EW, Rapkin AJ, Cohen LS, Grubb GS, Bergeron R, Smith L, Mirkin S, Constantine GD (2012) Continuous oral levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol for treating premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Contraception 85:19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hammarbäck S, Bäckström T (1988) Induced anovulation as treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome. A double-blind cross-over study with GnRH-agonist versus placebo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 67:159–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hammarbäck S, Bäckström T (1989) A demographic study in subgroups of women seeking help for premenstrual syndrome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 68:247–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hartlage SA, Freels A, Gotman N, Yonkers KA (2012) Criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): secondary analyses of relevant data sets. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(3):300–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Howland RH (2007) Managing common side effects of SSRIs. Psychopharm 45:15–18Google Scholar
  50. Hunter MS, Ussher JM, Cariss M, Browne S, Jelley R, Katz M (2002) Medical (fluoxetine) and psychological (cognitive-behavioural therapy) treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a study of treatment processes. J Psychosom Res 53:811–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hussain SY, Massil JH, Matta WH, Shaw RW, O'Brien PM (1992) Buserelin in premenstrual syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol 6:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson SR, McChesney C, Bean JA (1988) Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a nonclinical sample—I: prevalence, natural history and help-seeking behavior. J Repro Med 33:340–46Google Scholar
  53. Khajehei M, Abdali K, Parsanezhad ME, Tabatabaee HR (2009) Effect of treatment with dydrogesterone or calcium plus vitamin D on the severity of premenstrual syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 105:158–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kurshan N, Epperson CN (2006) Oral contraceptives and mood in women with and without premenstrual dysphoria: a theoretical model. Arch Women Ment Health 9:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Länden M, Nissbrandt H, Allgulander C, Sorvik K, Ysander C, Eriksson E (2007) Placebo controlled trial comparing intermittent and continuous paroxetine in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:153–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leather AT, Studd JWW, Watson NR, Holland EFN (1999) The treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome with goserelin with and without ‘add-back’ estrogen therapy: a placebo controlled study. Gynecol Endocrinol 13:48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lopez LM, Kaptein AA, Helmerhorst FM (2009) Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2):CD006586Google Scholar
  58. Lustyk MK, Gerrish WG, Shaver S, Keys SL (2009) Cognitive–behavioral therapy for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a systematic review. Arch Women Ment Health 12:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Magos AL, Brincat M, Studd JWW (1986) Treatment of the premenstrual syndrome by subcutaneous estradiol implants and cyclical oral noresthisterone: placebo controlled study. BMJ 292:1629–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Majewska MD, Harrison NL, Schwartz RD, Barker JL, Paul SM (1986) Steroid hormone metabolites are barbiturate-like modulators of the GABA receptor. Science 232:1004–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mellon SH (1994) Neurosteroids: biochemistry, modes of action, and clinical relevance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 78:1003–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mezrow G, Shoupe D, Spicer D, Lobo R, Leung B, Pike M (1994) Depot leuprolide acetate with estrogen and progestin add-back for long-term treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Fertil Steril 62:932–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Miner C, Brown E, McCray S, Gonzales J, Wohlreich M (2002) Weekly luteal-phase dosing with enteric-coated fluoxetine 90 mg in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Ther 24:417–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mitwally MF, Gotlieb L, Casper RF (2002) Prevention of bone loss and hypestrogenic symptoms by estrogen and interrupted progestogen add-back in long-term GnRH-agonist down-regulated patients with endometriosis and premenstrual syndrome. Menopause 9:236–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moret C, Isaac M, Briley M (2009) Problems associated with long-term treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Psychopharm 23:967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muse KN, Cetel NS, Futterman LA, Yen SC (1984) The premenstrual syndrome. Effects of "medical ovariectomy". N Engl J Med 311:1345–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nurnberg HG (2008) An evidence-based review updating the various treatment and management approaches to serotonin reuptake inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction. Drugs Today 44:147–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O’Brien PMS, Abukhalil IEH (1999) Randomised controlled trial of the management of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual mastalgia using luteal phase only danazol. Am J Obstet Gynecol 180:18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. O’Brien PMS, Bäckström T, Brown C, Dennerstein L, Endicott J, Neill et al (2011) Towards a consensus on diagnostic criteria, measurement and trial design of the premenstrual disorders: the ISPMD consensus. Arch Women Ment Health 14:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Oinonen KA, Mazmanian D (2002) To what extent do oral contraceptives influence mood and affect? J Affect Disord 70:229–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Olsen RW, Sieghart W (2009) GABA A receptors: subtypes provide diversity of function and pharmacology. Neuropharmacology 56:141–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Parry BL, Meliska CJ, Martínez LF, López AM, Sorenson DL, Hauger RL, Elliott JA (2008) Later, but not early, wake therapy reduces morning plasma melatonin: relationship to mood in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry Res 30:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pearlstein TB, Stone AB, Lund SA, Scheft H, Zlotnick C, Brown WA (1997) Comparison of fluoxetine, bupropion, and placebo in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 17:261–6Google Scholar
  74. Pearlstein TB, Bachmann GA, Zacur HA, Yonkers KA (2005) Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with a new drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive formulation. Contraception 72:414–21Google Scholar
  75. Pincus SM, Alam S, Rubinow DR, Bhuvaneswar CG, Schmidt PJ (2011) Predicting response to leuprolide of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder by daily mood rating dynamics. J Psychiatr Res 45:386–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ramacharan S, Love EJ, Fick GH, Goldfien A (1992) The epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a population based sample of 2650 urban women. J Clin Epidemiol 45:377–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rivera-Tovar AD, Frank E (1990) Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder in young women. Am J Psychiatry 147:1634–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rocha Filho EA, Lima JC, Pinho Neto JS, Montarroyos U (2011) Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Reprod Health 8:2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) (2007) Management of Premenstrual Syndrome (Green-top Guideline No. 48). Accessed 10 May 2009
  80. Sanders SA, Graham CA, Bass JL, Bancroft J (2001) A prospective study of the effects of oral contraceptives on sexuality and well-being and their relationship to discontinuation. Contraception 64:51–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sayegh R, Schiff I, Wurtman J, Spiers P, McDermott J, Wurtman R (1995) The effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage on mood, appetite, and cognitive function in women with premenstrual syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 86:520–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schmidt PJ, Nieman LK, Grover GN, Muller KL, Merriam GR, Rubinow DR (1991) Lack on effect of induced menses of symptoms on women with premenstrual syndrome. N Engl J Med 324:1174–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schmidt PJ, Grover GN, Rubinow DR (1993) Alprazolam in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:467–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schmidt PJ, Nieman LK, Danaceau MA, Adams LF, Rubinow DR (1998) Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. N Engl J Med 338:209–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Segebladh B, Borgström A, Nyberg S, Bixo M, Sundström-Poromaa I (2009) Evaluation of different add-back estradiol and progesterone treatments to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:139, e1-8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shah NR, Jones JB, Aperi J, Shemtov R, Karne A, Borensstein J (2008) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 111:1175–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shechter A, Boivin DB (2010) Sleep, hormones, and circadian rhythms throughout the menstrual cycle in healthy women and women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Int J Endocrinol 2010:259345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Smith RNH, Studd JWW, Zamblera D, Holland EFN (1995) A randomised comparison over 8 months of 100 mcgs and 200 mcg twice weekly doses in the treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 102:6475–84Google Scholar
  89. Soares C, Cohen L, Otto M, Harlow B (2001) Characteristics of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) who did or did not report history of depression: a preliminary report from the Harvard study of moods and cycles. J Women’s Health Gend Based Med 10:873–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Steiner M, Pearlstein T (2000) Premenstrual dysphoria and the serotonin system: pathophysiology and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 61(Suppl 12):17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Steiner M, Macdougall M, Brown E (2003) The premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) for clinicians. Arch Women Ment Health 6:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steiner M, Peer M, Palova E, Freeman EW, Macdougall M, Soares CN (2011) The premenstrual symptoms screening tool revised for adolescents (PSST-A): prevalence of severe PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents. Arch Women Ment Health 14:77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Studd J (2011) A guide to the treatment of depression women by hormones. Climacteric 14:637–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sundblad C, Hedberg MA, Eriksson E (1993) Clomipramine administered during the luteal phase reduces the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 9:133–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sundstrom I, Nyberg S, Bixo M, Hammarbäck S, Bäckström T (1999) Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in a low dose regimen. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78:891–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sveindóttir H, Bäckström T (2000) Prevalence of menstrual cycle symptom cyclicity and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a random sample of women using and not using oral contraceptives. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79:405–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, Tian J (1998) Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:444–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Watson NR, Studd JWW, Savvas M, Garnett T, Baber RJ (1989) Treatment of severe pre-menstrual syndrome with estradiol patched and cyclical oral noresthisterone. Lancet ii:730–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. West CP, Hillier H (1994) Ovarian suppression with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist goserelin (Zoladex) in management of the premenstrual tension syndrome. Hum Reprod 9:1058–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Whelan AM, Jurgens TM, Naylor H (2009) Herbs, vitamins and minerals in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:407–29Google Scholar
  101. Wittchen HU, Becker E, Lieb R, Krause P (2002) Prevalence, incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community. Psychol Med 32:119–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Woods NF, Most A, Dery GK (1982) Prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Am J Public Health 72:1257–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, O’Brien PMS (1999) Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ 318:1375–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Ismail KM, Jones PW, O'Brien PM (2004) The effectiveness of GnRHa with and without 'add-back' therapy in treating premenstrual syndrome: a meta-analysis. BJOG 111:585–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yonkers KA, Brown C, Pearlstein TB, Foegh M, Sampson-Landers C, Rapkin A (2005) Efficacy of a new low-dose oral contraceptive with drospirenone in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol 106:492–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yonkers KA, O’Brien PMS, Eriksson E (2008) Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet 371:1200–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy Nevatte
    • 1
  • Patrick Michael Shaughn O’Brien
    • 2
  • Torbjorn Bäckström
    • 3
  • Candace Brown
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Lorraine Dennerstein
    • 7
  • Jean Endicott
    • 8
  • C. Neill Epperson
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
  • Elias Eriksson
    • 12
  • Ellen W. Freeman
    • 13
    • 14
  • Uriel Halbreich
    • 15
  • Khalid Ismail
    • 16
  • Nicholas Panay
    • 17
  • Teri Pearlstein
    • 18
  • Andrea Rapkin
    • 19
  • Robert Reid
    • 20
  • David Rubinow
    • 21
  • Peter Schmidt
    • 22
  • Meir Steiner
    • 23
  • John Studd
    • 24
  • Inger Sundström-Poromaa
    • 25
  • Kimberly Yonkers
    • 26
    • 27
    • 28
  • Consensus Group of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders
  1. 1.Institute for Science and Technology in MedicineKeele UniversityStoke on TrentUK
  2. 2.Academic Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital North StaffordshireKeele University School of MedicineStoke on TrentUK
  3. 3.Umea Neurosteroid Research Center, Department of Clinical SciencesNorrland University HospitalUmeaSweden
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CentreMemphisUSA
  5. 5.Department of ObstetricsUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CentreMemphisUSA
  6. 6.Department of GynaecologyUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CentreMemphisUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Melbourne and National Ageing Research InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  8. 8.Department of PsychiatryColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.Department of PsychiatryPerelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  10. 10.Department of ObstetricsPerelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  11. 11.Department of GynecologyPerelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  12. 12.Institute of Neuroscience and PhysiologyGöteberg UniversityGötebergSweden
  13. 13.Department of Obstetrics/GynecologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  14. 14.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  15. 15.State University of New York at Buffalo and WPANew YorkUSA
  16. 16.School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham Women’s Foundation Trust, College of Medical and Dental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamEdgbastonUK
  17. 17.Queen Charlotte’s and Chelsea and Westminster HospitalsImperial College LondonLondonUK
  18. 18.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorWarren Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  19. 19.Department of Obstetrics and GenecologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  20. 20.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  21. 21.University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  22. 22.Section on Behavioral EndocrinologyNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA
  23. 23.Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural Neurosciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St Joseph’s HealthcareMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  24. 24.Department of GynaecologyChelsea and Westminster HospitalLondonUK
  25. 25.Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Obstetrics and GynaecologyUUUppsalaSweden
  26. 26.Department of PsychiatryNew HavenUSA
  27. 27.Department of ObstetricsNew HavenUSA
  28. 28.Department of GynaecologyNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations