Advertisement

Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 485–494 | Cite as

Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a population-based sample

  • Sibil TschudinEmail author
  • Paola Coda Bertea
  • Elisabeth Zemp
Original Article

Abstract

The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in a population-based sample of women of the entire reproductive age range, as well as to analyse predictors of PMS and PMDD in terms of socio-demographic, health status and health behavioural factors. A set of questions on PMS–based on the premenstrual syndrome screening tool developed by Steiner et al., translated into German and piloted—was integrated into the written questionnaire of the 2007 Swiss Health Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and multivariable regression analysis for the outcome variables PMS and PMDD were calculated. A total of 3,913 women aged 15 to 54 years answered the questions on PMS symptoms, and 3,522 of them additionally answered the questions on interference of PMS with life. Ninety one percent of the participants reported at least one symptom, 10.3% had PMS and 3.1% fulfilled the criteria for PMDD. The prevalence of PMS was higher in non-married women, in women aged 35–44 years and in women of the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland. Both PMS and PMDD were strongly associated with poor physical health and psychological distress. Socio-cultural factors seem to determine the prevalence, perception and handling of PMS. Considering the association with poor physical health and high psychological distress, a broader underlying vulnerability in women qualifying for PMDD must be assumed and should be taken into account in clinical management as well as in future research in this field.

Keywords

Premenstrual syndrome PMS Premenstrual dysphoric disorder PMDD Prevalence Predictors 

References

  1. Angst J, Sellaro R et al (2001) The epidemiology of perimenstrual psychological symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand 104(2):110–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anson O (1999) Exploring the bio-psycho–social approach to premenstrual experiences. Soc Sci Med 49(1):67–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bancroft J, Rennie D (1993) The impact of oral contraceptives on the experience of perimenstrual mood, clumsiness, food craving and other symptoms. J Psychosom Res 37(2):195–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE et al (2008) Cigarette smoking and the development of premenstrual syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 168(8):938–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Calmonte R, Galati-Petrecca M et al (2005) Gesundheit und Gesundheitsverhalten in der Schweiz 1992–2002. B. f. Statistik, NeuchâtelGoogle Scholar
  6. Campagne DM, Campagne G (2007) The premenstrual syndrome revisited. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 130(1):4–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chawla A, Swindle R et al (2002) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: is there an economic burden of illness? Med Care 40(11):1101–1112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen LS, Soares CN et al (2002) Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in older premenopausal women. The Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. J Affect Disord 70(2):125–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. De Ronchi D, Ujkaj M et al (2005) Symptoms of depression in late luteal phase dysphoric disorder: a variant of mood disorder? J Affect Disord 86(2–3):169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gehlert S, Hartlage S (1997) A design for studying the DSM-IV research criteria of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 18(1):36–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gehlert S, Song IH et al (2009) The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a randomly selected group of urban and rural women. Psychol Med 39(1):129–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Graham CA, Sherwin BB (1992) A prospective treatment study of premenstrual symptoms using a triphasic oral contraceptive. J Psychosom Res 36(3):257–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham CA, Sherwin BB (1993) The relationship between mood and sexuality in women using an oral contraceptive as a treatment for premenstrual symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology 18(4):273–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Halbreich U, Borenstein J et al (2003) The prevalence, impairment, impact, and burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(Suppl 3):1–23Google Scholar
  15. Hylan TR, Sundell K et al (1999) The impact of premenstrual symptomatology on functioning and treatment-seeking behavior: experience from the United States, United Kingdom, and France. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 8(8):1043–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnson TM (1987) Premenstrual syndrome as a western culture-specific disorder. Cult Med Psychiatry 11(3):337–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson SR, McChesney C et al (1988) Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a nonclinical sample. I. Prevalence, natural history and help-seeking behavior. J Reprod Med 33(4):340–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Krantz G, Ostergren PO (2000) Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting. J Epidemiol Community Health 54(3):192–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuczmierczyk AR, Labrum AH et al (1992) Perception of family and work environments in women with premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Res 36(8):787–795CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kurshan N, Neill Epperson C (2006) Oral contraceptives and mood in women with and without premenstrual dysphoria: a theoretical model. Arch Womens Ment Health 9(1):1–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Masho SW, Adera T et al (2005) Obesity as a risk factor for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 26(1):33–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Merikangas KR, Foeldenyi M et al (1993) The Zurich Study. XIX. Patterns of menstrual disturbances in the community: results of the Zurich Cohort Study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 243(1):23–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Oinonen KA, Mazmanian D (2002) To what extent do oral contraceptives influence mood and affect? J Affect Disord 70(3):229–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Perkonigg A, Yonkers KA et al (2004) Risk factors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a community sample of young women: the role of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 65(10):1314–1322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Potter J, Bouyer J et al (2009) Premenstrual syndrome prevalence and fluctuation over time: results from a French population-based survey. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 18(1):31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ramcharan S, Love EJ et al (1992) The epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a population-based sample of 2650 urban women: attributable risk and risk factors. J Clin Epidemiol 45(4):377–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rivera-Tovar AD, Frank E (1990) Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder in young women. Am J Psychiatry 147(12):1634–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ross C, Coleman G et al (2003) Prospectively reported symptom change across the menstrual cycle in users and non-users of oral contraceptives. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 24(1):15–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Segebladh B, Borgstrom A et al (2009) Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and premenstrual dysphoric symptoms in patients with experience of adverse mood during treatment with combined oral contraceptives. Contraception 79(1):50–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Steiner M, Macdougall M et al (2003) The premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) for clinicians. Arch Womens Ment Health 6(3):203–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sveindottir H, Backstrom T (2000) Prevalence of menstrual cycle symptom cyclicity and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a random sample of women using and not using oral contraceptives. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79(5):405–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Takeda T, Tasaka K et al (2006) Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese women. Arch Womens Ment Health 9(4):209–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. van den Akker OB, Eves FF et al (1995) Menstrual cycle symptom reporting in three British ethnic groups. Soc Sci Med 40(10):1417–1423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Vichnin M, Freeman EW et al (2006) Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescents: severity and impairment. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 19(6):397–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ware JE Jr, Gandek B (1998) Overview of the SF-36 Health Survey and the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. J Clin Epidemiol 51(11):903–912CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Weiss W, Spuhler T et al (1990) Enquête auprès de la population “La santé et la promotion de la santé”. Rapport final. Etude intercantonale sur les indicatuers de santé (IGIP-PROMES). Lausanne, Institut Suisse de la Santé Publique et des Hôpitaux ISH/SKIGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilson CA, Keye WR Jr (1989) A survey of adolescent dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptom frequency. A model program for prevention, detection, and treatment. J Adolesc Health Care 10(4):317–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wittchen HU, Becker E et al (2002) Prevalence, incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community. Psychol Med 32(1):119–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Woods NF, Most A et al (1982) Prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Am J Public Health 72(11):1257–1264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. World Health Organisation (2001) Mental health: new understanding, new hope. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sibil Tschudin
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Paola Coda Bertea
    • 2
  • Elisabeth Zemp
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity HospitalBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine at the Swiss Tropical InstituteAssociated Institute of the University of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Division of Social Medicine and Psychosomatics, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity HospitalBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations