Advertisement

Depressive and anxiety symptoms through late pregnancy and the first year post birth: an examination of prospective relationships

  • Karen M. Moss
  • Helen Skouteris
  • Eleanor H. Wertheim
  • Susan J. Paxton
  • Jeannette Milgrom
Original Contribution

Abstract

One hundred and fifty-nine women were measured for depressive and anxiety symptoms from late pregnancy through to 12 months postpartum. Partial correlations revealed stability of depressive and anxiety symptoms across time. Depressive symptoms did not predict anxiety at any time point. Anxiety predicted increases in depressive symptoms from late pregnancy to early postpartum, but not from early postpartum to mid postpartum. Anxiety predicted depressive symptoms from mid postpartum to late postpartum, however, not when social support in late pregnancy was controlled for.

Keywords

Anxiety Depressive symptoms Pregnancy Postpartum Social support 

References

  1. Austin M-P, Tully L, Parker G (2007) Examining the relationship between antenatal anxiety and postnatal depression. J Affect Disord 101:169–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck AT, Beck RW (1972) Screening depressed patients in family practice: a rapid technique. Postgrad Med 52:81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck AT, Rial WY, Rickels K (1974) Short form of depression inventory: cross-validation. Psychol Reports 34:1184–1186Google Scholar
  4. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ (1989) The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. J Psychiatr Res 28:193–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark DA (2004) Design considerations in prevention research. American Psychological Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Dozois DJA, Westra HA (2004) The nature of anxiety and depression: implications for prevention. In: Dozois DJA, Dobson KS (eds) The prevention of anxiety and depression: theory, research, and practice. American Psychological Association, Washington DC, pp 9–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goodman JH (2004) Postpartum depression beyond the early postpartum period. J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs 33:410–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heron J, O’Connor TG, Evans J, Golding J, Glover V, the ALSPAC Study Team (2004) The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. J Affect Disord 80:65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holcomb WLJ, Stone LS, Lustman PJ, Gavar JA, Mostello DJ (1996) Screening for depression in pregnancy: characteristics of the Beck depression inventory. Obstet Gynecol 88:1021–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Matthey S, Barnett B, Howie P, Kavanagh DJ (2003) Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: whatever happened to anxiety? J Affect Disord 74:139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Milgrom J, Gemmill AW, Bilszta JL, Hayes B, Barnett B, Brooks J, Ericksen J, Ellwood D, Buist A (2008) Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a large prospective study. J Affect Disord 108:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Skouteris H, Germano C, Wertheim EH, Paxton SJ, Milgrom J (2008) Sleep quality and depression during pregnancy: a prospective study. J Sleep Res 17:217–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Skouteris H, Wertheim E, Rallis S, Milgrom J, Paxton SJ (2009) Depression and anxiety through pregnancy and the early postpartum: an examination of prospective relationships. J Affect Disord 113:303–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1970) Test manual for the State-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  15. Watson D, Kendall PC (1989) Understanding anxiety and depression: their relation to negative and positive affective states. In: Kendall PC, Watson D (eds) Anxiety and depression: distinctive and overlapping features. Academic, San Diego, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  16. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK (1988) The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. J Personality Assess 52:30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Psychological ScienceLa Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia
  2. 2.School of PsychologyDeakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia
  3. 3.School of Behavioural ScienceUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations