The course of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Nigerian postpartum women Short communication First Online: 17 June 2005 Received: 26 September 2004 Accepted: 17 April 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Adewuya, A. & Afolabi, O. Arch Womens Ment Health (2005) 8: 257. doi:10.1007/s00737-005-0089-5 Summary
Postnatal depression is mostly studied within the first 12 weeks postpartum and postnatal anxiety neglected. Using the Zung’s self rating anxiety and depression scales in a repeated cross sectional study of postpartum women we found both anxiety and depressive symptoms more in first 8-weeks postpartum with a gradual decline in later postpartum period. Anxiety is more common than depression in the first 4-weeks with reversal of the trend subsequently. Both symptoms may persist till late postpartum period.
Keywords: Postnatal depression; postnatal anxiety; screening; prevalence; cross-culture. References Adewuya, AO, Eegunranti, AB, Lawal, AM 2005 Prevalence of postnatal depression in Western Nigerian women: a controlled study. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 9 60 64 CrossRef Google Scholar Ballard, CG, Davis, R, Handy, S, et al. 1993 Postpartum anxiety in mothers and fathers. Eur J Psychiatry 7 117 121 Google Scholar Barnett, B, Parker, G 1986 Possible determinants, correlates and consequences of high levels of anxiety in primiparous mothers. Psychol Med 16 177 185 PubMed Google Scholar Boyce, P, Stubbs, J, Todd, A 1993 The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: validation for an Australian sample. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 27 427 476 Google Scholar Cox, JL, Holden, JM, Sagovsky, R 1987 Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry 150 782 786 PubMed Google Scholar De Armond, M 1954 A type of postpartum anxiety reaction. Dis Nerv Syst 15 26 29 PubMed Google Scholar Heron, J O’Connor, TG Evans, J Golding, J Glover, V The ALSPAC study Team 2004 The course of anxiety and depression throughout pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. J Affect Disord 80 65 73 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Jegede, RO 1976 Psychometric properties of the Self Rating Depressive Scale. J Psychol 93 27 30 PubMed Google Scholar Jegede, RO 1977 Psychometric characteristics of the Self Rating Anxiety Scale. Psychol Rep 40 303 306 PubMed Google Scholar Jegede, RO 1979 Psychometric characteristics of Yoruba Version of Zung’s Self Rating Depression Scale and Self Rating Anxiety Scale. Afr J Med Sci 8 133 137 Google Scholar Manassis, K, Bradley, S, Goldberg, S, Hood, J, Swinson, RP 1994 Attachment to mothers with anxiety disorders and their children. J Am Acad Adolesc Psychiatry 33 1106 1113 Google Scholar Matthey, S, Barnett, B, Howie, P, Kavanagh, DJ 2003 Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: whatever happened to anxiety? J Affect Disord 74 139 147 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar O’Hara, MW, Swain, AM 1996 Rates and risk of postpartum depression – a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry 8 37 54 Google Scholar Stuart, S, Couser, G, Schilder, K, O’Hara, MW, Gorman, L 1998 Postpartum anxiety and depression: onset and comorbidity in a community sample. J Nerv Ment Dis 186 420 424 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Uwakwe, R, Okonwo, JE 2003 Affective (depressive) morbidity in puerperial Nigerian women: validation of the Edinburgh postnatal Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 107 251 259 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Wenzel, A, Haugen, EN, Jackson, LC, Robinson, K 2003 Prevalence of generalised anxiety at eight weeks postpartum. Arch Womens Ment Health 6 43 49 CrossRef Google Scholar Zung, WWK 1965 A self rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 12 63 70 PubMed Google Scholar Zung, WWK 1971 A rating instrument for anxiety disorder. Psychosomatics 12 371 379 PubMed Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005