Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 83–89 | Cite as

Psychoneuroendocrine correlates of secondary amenorrhea

  • R. E. Nappi
  • F. Facchinetti
Special topic


Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a common, non-organic and theoretically reversible form of anovulation due to reduced hypothalamic GnRH drive. Numerous studies suggest that this altered hypothalamic homeostasis is caused by a synergism between psychogenic challenge, promoted in part by dysfunctional attitudes, and metabolic compromise induced by undernutrition and overexercise.

The recent growing interest in psychiatric comorbidity underlines the importance of reconsidering the boundaries between psychological disorders and somatic conditions. That not withstanding, it is mandatory in gynecological endocrinology to explore the issue of secondary amenorrhea from a psychoneuroendocrine perspective in order to devise biopsychosocial interventions which address the individual distress.

In this brief review we will try to critically discuss the issue providing evidences from personal studies as clues for better understanding the extent of the complex psychoneuroendocrine network controlling menstrual function.

Keywords: Amenorrhea; eating disorders; reproduction; hypothalamus; stress. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Nappi
    • 1
  • F. Facchinetti
    • 2
  1. 1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, University of Pavia, ItalyIT
  2. 2. Department of Gynecologic, Obstetric and Pediatric Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, ItalyIT

Personalised recommendations