Assessing acrolein for determination of the severity of brain stroke, dementia, renal failure, and Sjögren's syndrome
- 125 Downloads
It was found recently that acrolein (CH2=CH–CHO), mainly produced from spermine, is more toxic than ROS (reactive oxygen species, O 2 −· , H2O2, and ·OH). In this review, we describe how the seriousness of brain infarction, dementia, renal failure, and Sjӧgren’s syndrome is correlated with acrolein. In brain infarction and dementia, it was possible to identify incipient patients with high sensitivity and specificity by measuring protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) in plasma together with IL-6 and CRP in brain infarction and Aβ40/42 in dementia. The level of PC-Acro in plasma and saliva correlated with the seriousness of renal failure and Sjӧgren’s syndrome, respectively. Thus, development of acrolein scavenger medicines containing SH-group such as N-acetylcysteine derivatives is important to maintain QOL (quality of life) of the elderly.
KeywordsN-Acetylcysteine derivatives Acrolein Alzheimer’s disease Brain infarction Primary Sjӧgren’s syndrome Chronic renal failure ROS (reactive oxygen species) Spermine Tissue damage
Mild cognitive impairment
Mini-mental state examination
Non-demented subject with WMH
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome
Quality of life
Reactive oxygen species
Relative risk value
Silent brain infarction
We are grateful to Dr. A. J. Michael for his help in preparing this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors decrare that there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants and animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the ethics committee of Chiba University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and the later amendments or comparable ethics standards.
- Campbell RA, Talwalker YB, Harner MH, Bartos D, Bartos F, Musgrave JE, Puri H, Grettie DP, Dolney AM, Loggan B (1978) Polyamines, uremia, and hemodialysis. Advances in polyamine research, vol 2. Raven Press, New York, pp 319–343Google Scholar
- Hanemaaijer R, Visser H, Konttinen YT, Koolwijk P, Verheijen JH (1998) A novel and simple immunocapture assay for determination of gelatinase-B (MMP-9) activities in biological fluids: saliva from patients with Sjӧgren’s syndrome contain increased latent and active gelatinase-B levels. Matrix Biol 17:657–665CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waragai M, Yoshida M, Mizoi M, Saiki R, Kashiwagi K, Takagi K, Arai H, Tashiro J, Hashimoto M, Iwai N, Uemura K, Igarashi K (2012) Increased protein-conjugated acrolein and amyloid-β40/42 ratio in plasma of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 32:33–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshida M, Higashi K, Jin L, Machi Y, Suzuki T, Masuda A, Dohmae N, Suganami A, Tamura Y, Nishimura K, Toida T, Tomitori H, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K (2010a) Identification of acrolein-conjugated protein in plasma of patients with brain infarction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:1234–1239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshida M, Higashi K, Kobayashi E, Saeki N, Wakui K, Kusaka T, Takizawa H, Kashiwado K, Suzuki N, Fukuda K, Nakamura T, Watanabe S, Tada K, Machi Y, Mizoi M, Toida T, Kanzaki T, Tomitori H, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K (2010b) Correlation between images of silent brain infarction, carotid atherosclerosis and white matter hyperintensity, and plasma levels of acrolein, IL-6 and CRP. Atherosclerosis 211:475–479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar