Amino Acids

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 1183–1192 | Cite as

Maternal l-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model

  • Onkar B. Sawant
  • Guoyao Wu
  • Shannon E. Washburn
Original Article

Abstract

Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and l-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109–132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that l-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

Keywords

Glutamine IUGR FASD Alcohol Fetal growth 

Abbreviations

FAS

Fetal alcohol syndrome

FASD

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

GD

Gestational day

IUGR

Intra uterine growth restriction

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Onkar B. Sawant
    • 1
  • Guoyao Wu
    • 2
  • Shannon E. Washburn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael E. DeBakey Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Animal ScienceTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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