Advertisement

Amino Acids

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 1795–1804 | Cite as

Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review

  • Alexandre de Souza e SilvaEmail author
  • Maria Paula Gonçalves da Mota
Review Article

Abstract

Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote® was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations “physical activity and homocysteine”, “training and homocysteine”, and/or “exercise and homocysteine”. After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

Keywords

Homocysteine Atherosclerosis Physical activity Training programs 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest associated with this manuscript.

References

  1. Bizheh N, Jaafari M (2011) The effect of a single bout circuit resistance exercise on homocysteine, hs-CRP and fibrinogen in sedentary middle aged men. Iran J Basic Med Sci 14:568–573PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boreham CAG, Kennedy RA, Murphy MH, Tully M, Wallace WFM, Young I (2005) Training effects of short bouts of stair climbing on cardiorespiratory fitness, blood lipids, and homocysteine in sedentary young women. Br J Sports Med 39:590–593. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2002.001131 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brustolin S, Giugliani R, Félix TM (2010) Genetics of homocysteine metabolism and associated disorders. Braz J Med Biol Res 43:1–7PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cappuccio FP, Bell R, Perry IJ, Gilg J, Ueland PM, Refsum H, Sagnella GA, Jeffery S, Cook DG (2002) Homocysteine levels in men and women of different ethnic and cultural background living in England. Atherosclerosis 164:95–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Zeimbekis A, Zampelas A et al (2004) The associations between smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and plasma homocysteine levels in cardiovascular disease-free people: the ‘ATTICA’ study. Vasc Med 9:117–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Czajkowska A, Lutoslawska G, Mazurek K, Ambroszkiewics J, Zmijewski P (2008) The relationship between physical activity and plasma homocysteine level in young men. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 14:177–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Czajkowska A, Lutoslawska G, Mazurek K, Ambroszkiewicz J, Zmijewski P (2011) Plasma homocysteine levels, physical activity and macronutrient intake in young healthy men. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 17:30–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Da Cunha MJ, da Cunha AA, Ferreira AG, Machado FR, Schmitz F et al (2012) Physical exercise reverses glutamate uptake and oxidative stress effects of chronic homocysteine administration in the rat. Int J Dev Neurosci 30:69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2012.01.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dankner R, Chetrit A, Dror GK, Sela BA (2007) Physical activity is inversely associated with total homocysteine levels, independent of C677T MTHFR genotype and plasma B vitamins. Age 29:219–227. doi: 10.1007/s11357-007-9041-0 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Jong N, Chin A, Paw MJ, de Groot LC, Rutten RA, Swinkels DW et al (2001) Nutrient-dense foods and exercise in frail elderly: effects on B vitamins, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and neuropsychological functioning. Am J Clin Nutr 73:338–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Di Santolo M, Banfi G, Stel G, Cauci S (2009) Association of recreational physical activity with homocysteine, folate and lipid markers in young women. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:111–118. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0880-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gaume V, Figard H, Mougin F, Guilland JC, Alberto JM et al (2005) Effect of a swim training on homocysteine and cysteine levels in rats. Amino Acids 28:337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gelecek N, Teoman N, Ozdirenc M, Pinar L, Akan P et al (2007) Influences of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on the plasma homocysteine level. Ann Nutr Metab 51:53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gottlieb MGV, Bonardi G, Moriguchi EH (2005) Fisiopatologia e aspectos inflamatórios da aterosclerose: artigo de Revisão. Scientia Medica 15:203–207Google Scholar
  15. Guzel NA, Pinar L, Colakoglu F, Karacan S, Ozer C (2012) Long-term callisthenic exercise-related changes in blood lipids, homocysteine, nitric oxide levels and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women. Chin J Physiol 55:202–209. doi: 10.4077/CJP.2012.AMM122 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halverstadt A, Phares DA, Wilund KR, Goldberg AP, Hagberg JM (2007) Endurance exercise training raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lowers small low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein independent of body fat phenotypes in older men and women. Metab, Clin Exp 56:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hammouda O, Chtourou H, Chaouachi A, Chahed H, Ferchichi S et al (2012) Effect of short-term maximal exercise on biochemical markers of muscle damage, total antioxidant status, and homocysteine levels in football players. Asian J Sports Med 3:239–246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayward R, Ruangthai R, Karnilaw P, Chicco A, Strange R et al (2003) Attenuation of homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction by exercise training. Pathophysiology 9:207–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hellgren M, Melander A, Ostgren CJ, Rastam L, Lindblad U (2005) Inverse association between plasma homocysteine, sulphonylurea exposure and physical activity: a community-based sample of type 2 diabetes patients in the Skaraborg hypertension and diabetes project. Diabetes Obes Metab 7:421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herrmann M, Schorr H, Obeid R, Scharhag J, Urhausen A et al (2003a) Homocysteine increases during endurance exercise. Clin Chem Lab Med 41:1518–1524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Herrmann M, Wilkinson J, Schorr H, Obeid R, Georg T et al (2003b) Comparison of the influence of volume-oriented training and high-intensity interval training on serum homocysteine and its cofactors in young, healthy swimmers. Clin Chem Lab Med 41:1525–1531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Inglesias-Gutiérrez E, Egan B, Díaz-Martínez ÁE, Peñalvo JL, González-Medina A et al (2012) Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals. PLoS ONE 7:1–8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051185 Google Scholar
  23. Ito H, Antoku S, Furusho M, Shinozaki M, Abe M et al (2013) The prevalence of the risk factors for atherosclerosis among type 2 diabetic patients is greater in the progressive stages of chronic kidney disease. Nephron Extra 3:66–72. doi: 10.1159/000353592 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jacob RA, Burri BJ (1996) Oxidative damage and defense. Am J Clin Nutr 63:985S–990SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Joubert LM, Manore MM (2006) Exercise, nutrition, and homocysteine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16:341–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Joubert LM, Manore MM (2008) The role of physical activity level and B-vitamin status on blood homocysteine levels. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1923–1931. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31817f36f9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. König D, Bissé E, Deibert P, Müller HM, Wieland H et al (2003) Influence of training volume and acute physical exercise on the homocysteine levels in endurance-trained men: interactions with plasma folate and vitamin B12. Ann Nutr Metab 47:114–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leeuwenburgh C, Hollander J, Leichtweis S, Griffiths M, Gore M, Ji LL (1997) Adaptations of glutathione antioxidant system to endurance training are tissue and muscle fiber specific. Am J of Physiol 272:R363–R369Google Scholar
  29. Loprinzi PD, Cardinal BJ (2012) Interrelationships among physical activity, depression, homocysteine, and metabolic syndrome with special considerations by sex. Prev Med 54:388–392. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.03.016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mishra PK, Awe O, Metreveli N, Qipshidze N, Joshua IG et al (2011) Exercise mitigates homocysteine -β2-adrenergic receptor interactions to ameliorate contractile dysfunction in diabetes. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 3:97–106PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Molina-López J, Molina JM, Chirosa LJ, Florea DI, Sáez L et al (2013) Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentration and association with training in handball players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 10:1–8. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murakami H, Iemitsu M, Sanada K, Gando Y, Ohmori Y et al (2011) Associations among objectively measured physical activity, fasting plasma homocysteine concentration, and MTHFR C677T genotype. Eur J Appl Physiol 111:2997–3005. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-1926-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nascimento CM, Stella F, Garlipp CR, Santos RF, Gobbi S et al (2011) Serum homocysteine and physical exercise in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Psychogeriatrics 11:105–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2011.00356.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neves LB, Macedo DM, Lopes AC (2004) Homocisteína. J Bras Patol Med Lab 40:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Obeid R, Herrmann W (2009) Homocysteine and lipids: s-adenosyl methionine as a key intermediate. FEBS Lett 583:1215–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Okura T, Rankinen T, Gagnon J, Lussier-Cacan S, Davignon J et al (2006) Effect of regular exercise on homocysteine concentrations: the HERITAGE Family Study. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olthof MR, Vliet TV, Verhoef P, Zock PL, Katan MB (2005) Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans. PLoS Med 2(5):e135PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Alvin MA, Wing AL et al (1993) The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Engl Jf Med 328:538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Powers SK, Howley ET (2007) Exercise physiology: theory and application to fitness and performance. Human kinetics, Champaign ILGoogle Scholar
  40. Prado ES, Dantas EHM (2002) Efeitos dos exercícios físicos aeróbio e de força nas lipoproteínas HDL, LDL e lipoproteína(a). Arq Bras Cardiol 79:429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Randeva HS, Lewandowski KC, Drzewoski J, Brooke-Wavell K, O’Callaghan C et al (2002) Exercise decreases plasma total homocysteine in overweight young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4496–4501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rennie MJ, Tipton KD (2000) Protein and amino acid metabolism during and after exercise and the effects of nutrition. Ann Rev of Nutrit 20:457–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Romaldini CC, Issler H, Cardoso AL, Diament J, Forti N (2004) Fatores de risco para aterosclerose em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana premature. J Pediatr 80:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rousseau AS, Robin S, Roussel AM, Ducros V, Margaritis L (2005) Plasma homocysteine is related to folate intake but not training status. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 15:125–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ruiz JR, Hurtig-Wennlöf A, Ortega FB, Patterson E, Nilsson TK et al (2007) Homocysteine levels in children and adolescents are associated with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T genotype, but not with physical activity, fitness or fatness: the European Youth Heart Study. Br J Nutr 97:255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stühlinger MC, Tsao PS, Her JH, Kimoto M, Balint RF, Cooke JP (2001) Homocysteine impairs the nitric oxide synthase pathway: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Circulation 104:2569–2575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Unt E, Zilmer K, Mägi A, Kullisaar T, Kairane C et al (2008) Homocysteine status in former top-level male athletes: possible effect of physical activity and physical fitness. Scand J Med Sci Sports 18:360–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Venditti P, Di Meo SD (1997) Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats. Int J Sports Med 18:497–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vincent KR, Braith RW, Bottiglieri T, Vincent HK, Lowenthal DT (2003) Homocysteine and lipoprotein levels following resistance training in older adults. Prev Cardiol 6:197–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vincent HK, Bourguignon C, Vincent KR (2006) Resistance training lowers exercise-induced oxidative stress and homocysteine levels in overweight and obese older adults. Obesity 14:1921–1930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wright M, Francis K, Cornwell P (1998) Effect of acute exercise on plasma homocysteine. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 38:262–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Wu G (2009) Amino acids: metabolism function and nutrition. Amino Acids 37:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandre de Souza e Silva
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maria Paula Gonçalves da Mota
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidade Trás-os-Montes Alto Douro, CIDESDVila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Centro Universitário de Itajubá, FEPIItajubáBrazil

Personalised recommendations