Amino Acids

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 1441–1448 | Cite as

Supraspinal metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 8: a switch to turn off pain

Review Article

Abstract

Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and as such controls the majority of synapses. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is mediated via ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs). Signaling via mGluRs permits to finely tune, rather than turning on/off, the excitatory neurotransmission as the iGluRs do. Eight mGluRs (mGluR1-8) have been cloned so far, which have been divided into three groups based on sequence homology, pharmacological properties and second messenger signaling. mGluRs are widely expressed both on glia and neurons. On neurons they are located both at postsynaptic (group I) and presynaptic sites (group II and III). Group II and III mGluR stimulation reduces glutamate release, which can prove useful in pathological conditions characterized by elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission which include chronic pain. Indeed, mGluRs are widely distributed on pain neuraxis. The recent development of selective mGluR ligands has permitted investigating the individual role of each mGluR on pain control. The development of (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine, a selective mGluR8 agonist, has revealed the mGluR8 role in inhibiting pain and its related affective consequences in chronic pain conditions. mGluR8 proved also to be overexpressed in pain controlling areas during pathological pain guaranteeing the availability of a switch for turning off abnormal pain. Thus, mGluR8 corresponds to an ideal target in designing novel analgesics. This review will focus on the novel insights into the mGluR8 role on pain control, with particular emphasis on the supraspinal descending pathway, an antinociceptive endogenous source, whose activation or disinhibition (via mGluR8) induces analgesia.

Keywords

Glutamate Chronic pain Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 Antinociceptive descending pathway DHPG 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesiology, Surgery and EmergencyThe Second University of NaplesNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Pharmacology Division, Department of Experimental MedicineThe Second University of NaplesNaplesItaly

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