Amino Acids

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 809–824 | Cite as

Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function

Minireview Article

Abstract

Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock’s feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

Keywords

Thiamine Riboflavin Nicotinic acid Pantothenate Pyridoxal Biotin Folic acid Tocopherol 

Abbreviations

AIR

5-Aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (5-amino-1-(5-phospho-d-ribosyl)imidazole)

ATP

Adenosine-5′-triphosphate

CoA

Coenzyme A

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FMN

Flavin mononucleotide (Riboflavin-5′-phosphate)

GTP

Guanosine-5′-triphosphate

HET-P

4-Methyl-5-β-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate

HMDH-PP

6-Hydroxymethyl-dihydropterin diphosphate

HMP-PP

2-Methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine diphosphate

NAD(P)+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)

PABA

p-Aminobenzoate

PLP

Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate

PRPP

5-Phospho-α-d-ribose 1-diphosphate

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAM

S-adenosyl-l-methionine

THF

Tetrahydrofolate

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research in SM-B laboratory is supported by the BFU 2012-32057 grant from the Spanish Government. JAM holds a FPU fellowship from the Spanish Government.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Facultat de BiologiaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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