Suppression of native defense mechanisms, SIRT1 and PPARγ, by dietary glycoxidants precedes disease in adult humans; relevance to lifestyle-engendered chronic diseases
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SIRT1 and PPARγ, host defenses regulating inflammation and metabolic functions, are suppressed under chronic high oxidant stress and inflammation (OS/Infl) conditions. In diabetes, dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) cause OS/Infl and suppress SIRT1. Herein, we ask whether dAGEs also suppress host defense in adults without diabetes. The relationships between dAGEs and basal SIRT1 mRNA, PPARγ protein levels in mononuclear cells (MNC) and circulating inflammatory/metabolic markers were examined in 67 healthy adults aged >60 years and in 18 subjects, before and after random assignment to either a standard diet (regular >15 AGE Eq/day) or an isocaloric AGE-restricted diet (<10 AGE Eq/day) for 4 months. Also, the interactions of AGEs and anti-AGE receptor-1 (AGER1) with SIRT1 and PPARγ were assessed in wild type (WT) and AGER1-transduced (AGER1+) MNC-like THP-1 cells. We found that dAGE, but not caloric intake, correlated negatively with MNC SIRT1 mRNA levels and positively with circulating AGEs (sAGEs), OS/infl, MNC TNFα and RAGE. Basal MNC PPARγ protein was also lower in consumers of regular vs. AGE-restricted diet. AGE restriction restored MNC SIRT1 and PPARγ, and significantly decreased sAGEs, 8-isoprostanes, VCAM-1, MNC TNFα and RAGE. Model AGEs suppressed SIRT1 protein and activity, and PPARγ protein in WT, but not in AGER1+ cells in vitro. In conclusion, chronic consumption of high-AGE diets depletes defenses such as SIRT1 and PPARγ, independent of calories, predisposing to OS/Infl and chronic metabolic disease. Restricted entry of oral AGEs may offer a disease-prevention alternative for healthy adults.
KeywordsNutrition Oxidative stress Insulin resistance Host defense mechanisms Glycation
AG-23188 and AG-09453 (to H. Vlassara) from the National Institute of Health and National Institute of Research Resources, MO1-RR-00071, awarded to the General Clinical Research Center at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, for clinical and statistical support.
Conflict of interest
No conflicts of interested declared by any of the authors.
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