Fate of ferrisiderophores after import across bacterial outer membranes: different iron release strategies are observed in the cytoplasm or periplasm depending on the siderophore pathways
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Siderophore production and utilization is one of the major strategies deployed by bacteria to get access to iron, a key nutrient for bacterial growth. The biological function of siderophores is to solubilize iron in the bacterial environment and to shuttle it back to the cytoplasm of the microorganisms. This uptake process for Gram-negative species involves TonB-dependent transporters for translocation across the outer membranes. In Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative bacteria, ABC transporters associated with periplasmic binding proteins import ferrisiderophores across cytoplasmic membranes. Recent data reveal that in some siderophore pathways, this step can also be carried out by proton-motive force-dependent permeases, for example the ferrichrome and ferripyochelin pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Iron is then released from the siderophores in the bacterial cytoplasm by different enzymatic mechanisms depending on the nature of the siderophore. Another strategy has been reported for the pyoverdine pathway in P. aeruginosa: iron is released from the siderophore in the periplasm and only siderophore-free iron is transported into the cytoplasm by an ABC transporter having two atypical periplasmic binding proteins. This review presents recent findings concerning both ferrisiderophore and siderophore-free iron transport across bacterial cytoplasmic membranes and considers current knowledge about the mechanisms involved in iron release from siderophores.
KeywordsSiderophore Iron uptake Iron homeostasis TonB-dependent transporters ABC transporters
This work was partly funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, by grants from the Centre International de Recherche au Frontière de la Chimie (FRC), from the ANR (Agence Nationale de Recherche, ANR-08-BLAN-0309-02) and from the Association Vaincre la Mucoviscidose. L. Guillon had a fellowship from the Centre International de Recherche au Frontière de la Chimie (FRC).
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