Carnosine enhances diabetic wound healing in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disorder with severe late complications. Normal wound healing involves a series of complex and well-orchestrated molecular events dictated by multiple factors. In diabetes, wound healing is grossly impaired due to defective, and dysregulated cellular and molecular events at all phases of wound healing resulting in chronic wounds that fail to heal. Carnosine, a dipeptide of alanine and histidine and an endogenous antioxidant is documented to accelerate healing of wounds and ulcers. However, not much is known about its role in wound healing in diabetes. Therefore, we studied the effect of carnosine in wound healing in db/db mice, a mice model of Type 2 DM. Six millimeter circular wounds were made in db/db mice and analyzed for wound healing every other day. Carnosine (100 mg/kg) was injected (I.P.) every day and also applied locally. Treatment with carnosine enhanced wound healing significantly, and wound tissue analysis showed increased expression of growth factors and cytokines genes involved in wound healing. In vitro studies with human dermal fibroblasts and microvascular-endothelial cells showed that carnosine increases cell viability in presence of high glucose. These effects, in addition to its known role as an antioxidant and a precursor for histamine synthesis, provide evidence for a possible therapeutic use of carnosine in diabetic wound healing.
KeywordsCarnosine Diabetic wound healing db/db mice Human dermal fibroblast Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells
We thank the Family Erling Persson Foundation, The European Commission project FUNCFOOD (FP7-KBBE-2009-245030), and Swedish Medical Research Council Grant No. 04224 for financial support. A part of this study was supported by the EU-funded specific-target project PREDICTIONS on the identification of risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy.
Conflict of interest
There is no commercial or financial interest in the presented work and the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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