Plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize a wide range of nitrogenous heterocyclic aldehydes
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The metabolic degradation of aldehydes is catalyzed by oxidoreductases from which aldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1) comprise nonspecific or substrate-specific enzymes. The latter subset is represented, e.g., by NAD+-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs; EC 18.104.22.168) oxidizing a group of naturally occurring ω-aminoaldehydes including polyamine oxidation products. Recombinant isoenzymes from pea (PsAMADH1 and 2) and tomato (LeAMADH1 and 2) were subjected to kinetic measurements with synthetic aldehydes containing a nitrogenous heterocycle such as pyridinecarbaldehydes and their halogenated derivatives, (pyridinylmethylamino)-aldehydes, pyridinyl propanals and aldehydes derived from purine, 7-deazapurine and pyrimidine to characterize their substrate specificity and significance of the resulting data for in vivo reactions. The enzymatic production of the corresponding carboxylic acids was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Although the studied AMADHs are largely homologous and supposed to have a very similar active site architecture, significant differences were observed. LeAMADH1 displayed the broadest specificity oxidizing almost all compounds followed by PsAMADH2 and 1. In contrast, LeAMADH2 accepted only a few compounds as substrates. Pyridinyl propanals were converted by all isoenzymes, usually better than pyridinecarbaldehydes and aldehydes with fused rings. The K m values for the best substrates were in the range of 10−5–10−4 M. Nevertheless, the catalytic efficiency values (V max/K m) reached only a very small fraction of that with 3-aminopropanal (except for LeAMADH1 activity with two pyridine-derived compounds). Docking experiments using the crystal structure of PsAMADH2 were involved to discuss differences in results with position isomers or alkyl chain homologs.
KeywordsAldehyde Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 7-Deazapurine Pyridine Pyrimidine Purine
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase
Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry
Pea (Pisum sativum) aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase
This work was supported by OP RD&I grant no. ED0007/01/01 (Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research) and grant no. MSM0021622413 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, Czech Republic, plus grant no. 522/08/0555 from the Czech Science Foundation. We would also like to thank Hana Moskalíková, a former student of the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, for her valuable contribution to initial experiments.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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