Advertisement

Amino Acids

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 1987–1996 | Cite as

Effect of leucine supplementation on indices of muscle damage following drop jumps and resistance exercise

  • Tyler J. Kirby
  • N. Travis Triplett
  • Tracie L. Haines
  • Jared W. Skinner
  • Kimberly R. Fairbrother
  • Jeffrey M. McBride
Original Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of leucine supplementation on indices of muscle damage following eccentric-based resistance exercise. In vitro, the amino acid leucine has been shown to reduce proteolysis and stimulate protein synthesis. Twenty-seven untrained males (height 178.6 ± 5.5 cm; body mass 77.7 ± 13.5 kg; age 21.3 ± 1.6 years) were randomly divided into three groups; leucine (L) (n = 10), placebo (P) (n = 9) and control (C) (n = 8). The two experimental groups (L and P) performed 100 depth jumps from 60 cm and six sets of ten repetitions of eccentric-only leg presses. Either leucine (250 mg/kg bm) or placebo was ingested 30 min before, during and immediately post-exercise and the morning of each recovery day following exercise. Muscle function was determined by peak force during an isometric squat and by jump height during a static jump at pre-exercise (PRE) and 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-exercise (24, 48, 72, 96 h). Additionally, at these time points each group’s serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) along with perceived feelings of muscle soreness were determined. None of the C group dependent variables was altered by the recurring testing procedures. Peak force was significantly decreased across all time points for both experimental groups. The L group experienced an attenuated drop in mean peak force across all post-exercise time points compared to the P group. Jump height significantly decreased from PRE for both the L and P group at 24 h and 48 h. CK and Mb was significantly elevated from PRE for both experimental groups at 24 h. Muscle soreness increased across all time points for the both the L and P group, and the L group experienced a significantly higher increase in mean muscle soreness post-exercise. Following exercise-induced muscle damage, high-dose leucine supplementation may help maintain force output during isometric contractions, however, not force output required for complex physical tasks thereby possibly limiting its ergogenic effectiveness.

Keywords

Creatine kinase Myoglobin Muscle soreness Force output 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This investigation was supported through the GNC® Nutritional Research Grant provided by the National Strength and Conditioning Association.

References

  1. Anthony JC, Anthony TG, Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS (2000) Orally administered leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats in association with increased eIF4F formation. J Nutr 130(2):139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bassit RA, Sawada LA, Bacurau RF, Navarro F, Martins E Jr, Santos RV, Caperuto EC, Rogeri P, Costa Rosa LF (2002) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes. Nutrition 18(5):376–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baty JJ, Hwang H, Ding Z, Bernard JR, Wang B, Kwon B, Ivy JL (2007) The effect of a carbohydrate and protein supplement on resistance exercise performance, hormonal response, and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 21(2):321–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Kohnke R (2006) Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr 136(1 Suppl):269S–273SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brancaccio P, Maffulli N, Limongelli FM (2007) Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine. Br Med Bull 81–82:209–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buford TW, Cooke MB, Shelmadine BD, Hudson GM, Redd L, Willoughby DS (2009) Effects of eccentric treadmill exercise on inflammatory gene expression in human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 34(4):745–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buse MG, Reid SS (1975) Leucine. A possible regulator of protein turnover in muscle. J Clin Investig 56(5):1250–1261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byrne C, Eston R (2002) The effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on isometric and dynamic knee extensor strength and vertical jump performance. J Sports Sci 20(5):417–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cockburn E, Hayes PR, French DN, Stevenson E, Clair Gibson A (2008) Acute milk-based protein-CHO supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33(4):775–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooke MB, Rybalka E, Williams AD, Cribb PJ, Hayes A (2009) Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 6:13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coombes JS, McNaughton LR (2000) Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase after prolonged exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 40(3):240–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cormie P, McBride JM, McCaulley GO (2007) Validation of power measurement techniques in dynamic lower body resistance exercises. J Appl Biomech 23(2):103–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ebbeling CB, Clarkson PM (1989) Exercise-induced muscle damage and adaptation. Sports Med 7(4):207–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibala MJ, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Stauber WT, Elorriaga A (1995) Changes in human skeletal muscle ultrastructure and force production after acute resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 78(2):702–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Greer BK, Woodard JL, White JP, Arguello EM, Haymes EM (2007) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and indicators of muscle damage after endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 17(6):595–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison AJ, Gaffney SD (2004) Effects of muscle damage on stretch-shortening cycle function and muscle stiffness control. J Strength Cond Res 18(4):771–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jackman SR, Witard OC, Jeukendrup AE, Tipton KD (2010) Branched-chain amino acid ingestion can ameliorate soreness from eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42(5):962–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MacIntyre DL, Sorichter S, Mair J, Berg A, McKenzie DC (2001) Markers of inflammation and myofibrillar proteins following eccentric exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 84(3):180–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McBride JM, Blow D, Kirby TJ, Haines TL, Dayne AM, Triplett NT (2009) Relationship between maximal squat strength and five, ten, and forty yard sprint times. J Strength Cond Res 23(6):1633–1636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Miyama M, Nosaka K (2004) Influence of surface on muscle damage and soreness induced by consecutive drop jumps. J Strength Cond Res 18(2):206–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Nakashima K, Ishida A, Yamazaki M, Abe H (2005) Leucine suppresses myofibrillar proteolysis by down-regulating ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in chick skeletal muscles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336(2):660–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nosaka K, Sacco P, Mawatari K (2006) Effects of amino acid supplementation on muscle soreness and damage. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16(6):620–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nunan D, Howatson G, van Someren KA (2010) Exercise-induced muscle damage is not attenuated by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 24(2):531–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Peake J, Nosaka K, Suzuki K (2005) Characterization of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in humans. Exerc Immunol Rev 11:64–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Pearce AJ, Sacco P, Byrnes ML, Thickbroom GW, Mastaglia FL (1998) The effects of eccentric exercise on neuromuscular function of the biceps brachii. J Sci Med Sport 1(4):236–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharp CP, Pearson DR (2010) Amino acid supplements and recovery from high-intensity resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 24(4):1125–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shimomura Y, Yamamoto Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Murakami T, Shimomura N, Kobayashi H, Mawatari K (2006) Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. J Nutr 136(2):529S–532SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Shimomura Y, Inaguma A, Watanabe S, Yamamoto Y, Muramatsu Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Shimomura N, Kobayashi H, Mawatari K (2010) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 20(3):236–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith C, Kruger MJ, Smith RM, Myburgh KH (2008) The inflammatory response to skeletal muscle injury: illuminating complexities. Sports Med 38(11):947–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stock MS, Young JC, Golding LA, Kruskall LJ, Tandy RD, Conway-Klaassen JM, Beck TW (2010) The effects of adding leucine to pre and postexercise carbohydrate beverages on acute muscle recovery from resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 24(8):2211–2219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Turner TS, Tucker KJ, Rogasch NC, Semmler JG (2008) Impaired neuromuscular function during isometric, shortening, and lengthening contractions after exercise-induced damage to elbow flexor muscles. J Appl Physiol 105(2):502–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Van Koevering M, Nissen S (1992) Oxidation of leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproate to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate in vivo. Am J Physiol 262 (1 Pt 1):E27–31Google Scholar
  33. van Someren KA, Edwards AJ, Howatson G (2005) Supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) reduces signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15(4):413–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. White JP, Wilson JM, Austin KG, Greer BK, St John N, Panton LB (2008) Effect of carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5:5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yamamoto LM, Judelson DA, Farrell MJ, Lee EC, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Maresh CM (2008) Effects of hydration state and resistance exercise on markers of muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 22(5):1387–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tyler J. Kirby
    • 1
  • N. Travis Triplett
    • 1
  • Tracie L. Haines
    • 1
  • Jared W. Skinner
    • 1
  • Kimberly R. Fairbrother
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. McBride
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuromuscular Laboratory, Department of Health, Leisure and Exercise ScienceAppalachian State UniversityBooneUSA

Personalised recommendations