Amino Acids

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 451–460

Structural biology of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

Review Article

Abstract

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and a subject of many structural and biochemical investigations for anti-cancer and anti-parasitic therapy. The enzyme undergoes an internal serinolysis reaction as a post-translational modification to generate the active site pyruvoyl group for the decarboxylation process. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from Homo sapiens, Solanum tuberosum, Thermotoga maritima, and Aquifex aeolicus have been determined. Numerous crystal structures of human AdoMetDC and mutants have provided insights into the mechanism of autoprocessing, putrescine activation, substrate specificity, and inhibitor design to the enzyme. The comparison of the human and potato enzyme with the T. maritima and A. aeolicus enzymes supports the hypothesis that the eukaryotic enzymes evolved by gene duplication and fusion. The residues implicated in processing and activity are structurally conserved in all forms of the enzyme, suggesting a divergent evolution of AdoMetDC.

Keywords

Polyamines Protein evolution Putrescine activation Cation–π interactions Pyruvoyl cofactor 

Abbreviations

AdoMetDC

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

dcAdoMet

S-adenosyl-5′-(3-methylthiopropylamine)

AdoMet

S-adenosylmethionine

MeAdoMet

S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester

hAdoMetDC

Human AdoMetDC

pAdoMetDC

Potato AdoMetDC

TmAdoMetDC

Thermotoga maritima AdoMetDC

ODC

Ornithine decarboxylase

MGBG

Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)

CGP48664A

4-Amidinoindan-1-one-2′-amidinohydrazone

MMTA

5′-Deoxy-5′-(dimethylsulfonio)adenosine

DMAMA

5′-Deoxy-5′-(N-dimethyl)amino-8-methyl adenosine

MHZPA

5′-Deoxy-5′-[N-methyl-N-(3-hydrazinopropyl)amino]adenosine

MAOEA

5′-Deoxy-5′-[N-methyl-N-[(2-aminooxy)ethyl]amino]adenosine

TbAdoMetDC

Trypanosomabrucei AdoMetDC

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Chemical BiologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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