Amino Acids

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 739–746 | Cite as

TIG3: a regulator of type I transglutaminase activity in epidermis

  • Richard L. Eckert
  • Michael T. Sturniolo
  • Ralph Jans
  • Catherine A. Kraft
  • Haibing Jiang
  • Ellen A. Rorke
Review Article


Keratinocytes undergo a process of terminal cell differentiation that results in the construction of a multilayered epithelium designed to produce a structure that functions to protect the body from dehydration, abrasion and infection. These protective properties are due to the production of a crosslinked layer of protein called the cornified envelope. Type I transglutaminase (TG1), an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine bonds, is the key protein responsible for generation of the crosslinks. The mechanisms that lead to activation of transglutaminase during terminal differentiation are not well understood. We have identified a protein that interacts with TG1 and regulates its activity. This protein, tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3), is expressed in the differentiated layers of the epidermis and its expression is associated with transglutaminase activation and cornified envelope formation. We describe a novel mechanism whereby TIG3 regulates TG1 activity.


Transglutaminase TIG3 Keratinocyte differentiation Calcium RIG1 H-rev 107 tumor suppressor 



Transglutaminase type 1


Tazarotene-induced gene 3


Fluorescein cadaverine



This work was supported by a grant to RLE from the National Institutes of Health (AR49713).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Eckert
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael T. Sturniolo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ralph Jans
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Catherine A. Kraft
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Haibing Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ellen A. Rorke
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Greenebaum Cancer CenterUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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