Presence of kynurenic acid in food and honeybee products
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Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, showing anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity. In this study, the presence of KYNA in food and honeybee products was investigated. KYNA was found in all 37 tested samples of food and honeybee products. The highest concentration of KYNA was obtained from honeybee products’ samples, propolis (9.6 nmol/g), honey (1.0–4.8 nmol/g) and bee pollen (3.4 nmol/g). A high concentration was detected in fresh broccoli (2.2 nmol/g) and potato (0.7 nmol/g). Only traces of KYNA were found in some commercial baby products. KYNA administered intragastrically in rats was absorbed from the intestine into the blood stream and transported to the liver and to the kidney. In conclusion, we provide evidence that KYNA is a constituent of food and that it can be easily absorbed from the digestive system.
KeywordsKynurenic acid Food Honeybee product Digestive system Absorption
M.P. Turski and M. Turska are students, volunteers in the Department of Toxicology. This study was supported in part by grant nr 1.27/07 from the Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland.
- Kuc D, Zgrajka W, Parada-Turska J, Urbanik-Sypniewska T, Turski WA (2008) Micromolar concentration of kynurenic acid in rat small intestine. Amino Acids. doi: 10.1007/s00726-007-0631-z