Amino Acids

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 547–562 | Cite as

Effects of amino acid-derived luminal metabolites on the colonic epithelium and physiopathological consequences

  • F. Blachier
  • F. Mariotti
  • J. F. Huneau
  • D. Tomé
Review Article


Depending on the amount of alimentary proteins, between 6 and 18 g nitrogenous material per day enter the large intestine lumen through the ileocaecal junction. This material is used as substrates by the flora resulting eventually in the presence of a complex mixture of metabolites including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, short and branched-chain fatty acids, amines; phenolic, indolic and N-nitroso compounds. The beneficial versus deleterious effects of these compounds on the colonic epithelium depend on parameters such as their luminal concentrations, the duration of the colonic stasis, the detoxication capacity of epithelial cells in response to increase of metabolite concentrations, the cellular metabolic utilization of these metabolites as well as their effects on colonocyte intermediary and oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, the effects of metabolites on electrolyte movements through the colonic epithelium must as well be taken into consideration for such an evaluation. The situation is further complicated by the fact that other non-nitrogenous compounds are believed to interfere with these various phenomenons. Finally, the pathological consequences of the presence of excessive concentrations of these compounds are related to the short- and, most important, long-term effects of these compounds on the rapid colonic epithelium renewing and homeostasis.

Keywords: Amino acids – Bacterial metabolites – Colon epithelium – Adaptative metabolism 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmad, MS, Krishnan, S, Ramakrishna, S, Mathan, M, Pulimood, AB, Murthy, SN 2000Butyrate and glucose metabolism by colonocytes in experimental colitis in miceGut46493499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Cancers, nutrition and food: colon, rectum. In: Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington DC, pp 216–251Google Scholar
  3. Ardawi, MS, Newsholme, EA 1985Fuel utilization in colonocytes of the ratBiochem J231713719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arena, ME, Manca de Nadra, MC 2001Biogenic amine production by lactobacillusJ Appl Microbiol90158162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Auvinen, M, Paasinen, A, Andersson, LC, Hölttä, E 1992Ornithine decarboxylase activity is critical for cell transformationNature360355358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Babidge, W, Millard, S, Roediger, W 1998Sulfides impair short chain fatty acid β-oxidation at acyl-CoA dehydrogenase level in colonocytes: implications for ulcerative colitisMol Cell Biochem181117124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Backes, G, Hennig, U, Petzke, KJ, Elsner, A, Junghans, P, Nurnberg, G, Metges, CC 2002Contribution of intestinal microbial lysine to lysine homeostasis is reduced in minipigs fed a wheat gluten-based dietAm J Clin Nutr7613171325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baglieri, A, Mahe, S, Zidi, S, Huneau, JF, Thuillier, F, Marteau, P, Tome, D 1994Gastro-jejunal digestion of soya-bean-milk protein in humansBr J Nutr72519532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Balasundaram, D, Tyagi, AK 1991Polyamine-DNA nexus: structural ramifications and biological implicationsMol Cell Biochem100129140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bardocz, S, Duguid, TJ, Brown, DS, Grant, G, Pusztai, A, White, A, Ralph, A 1995The importance of dietary polyamines in cell regeneration and growthBr J Nutr73819828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barker, HA 1981Amino acid degradation by anaerobic bacteriaAnnu Rev Biochem502340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartos, F, Bartos, D, Grettie, DP, Campbell, RA 1977Polyamine levels in normal human serum. Comparison of analytical methodsBiochem Biophys Res Commun75915919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beckman, JS, Koppenol, WH 1996Nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite: the good, the bad and the uglyAm J Physiol271C1424C1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benito, E, Stiggelbout, A, Bosch, FX, Obrador, A, Kaldor, J, Mulet, M, Munoz, N 1991Nutritional factors in colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in MajorcaInt J Cancer49161167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bingham, SA 1988Meat, starch and non starch polysaccharides and large bowel cancerAm J Clin Nutr48762767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bingham, SA, Pignatelli, B, Pollock, JR, Ellul, A, Malaveille, C, Gross, G, Runswick, S, Cummings, JH, O’Neill, IK 1996Does increased endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer?Carcinogenesis17515523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Birkett, A, Muir, J, Philipps, J, Jones, G, O’Dea, K 1996Resistant starch lowers fecal concentrations of ammonia and phenols in humansAm J Clin Nutr63766772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blachier, F, Selammia, M, Robert, V, M’Rabet-Touil, H, Duée, PH 1995Metabolism of L-arginine through polyamine and nitric oxide synthase pathways in proliferative or differentiated human colon carcinoma cellsBiochim Biophys Acta1268255262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bone, E, Tamm, A, Hill, M 1976The production of urinary phenols by gut bacteria and their possible role in the causation of large bowel cancerAm J Clin Nutr2914481454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bos, C, Juillet, B, Fouillet, H, Turlan, L, Dare, S, Luengo, C, Ntounda, R, Benamouzig, R, Gausseres, N, Tome, D, Gaudichon, C 2005Postprandial metabolic utilization of wheat protein in humansAm J Clin Nutr818794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bostick, RM, Potter, JD, Kushi, LH, Sellers, TA, Steinmetz, KA, McKenzie, DR, Gapstur, SM, Folsom, AR 1994Sugar, meat and fat intake and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States)Cancer Causes Control53852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boughton-Smith, NK, Evans, SM, Hawkey, CJ, Cole, AT, Balsitis, M, Whittle, BJR, Moncada, S 1993Nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s diseaseLancet342338340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boughton-Smith, NK, Evans, SM, Whittle, BJR 1994Characterisation of nitric oxide synthase activity in the rat colonic mucosa and muscle after endotoxin and in a model of colitisAgents Actions41C223C225Google Scholar
  24. Brittain, T, Blackmore, R, Greenwood, C, Thomson, AJ 1992Bacterial nitrite-reducing enzymesEur J Biochem209793802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Calmels, S, Ohshima, H, Vincent, P, Gounot, A, Bartsch, H 1985Screening of microorganismes of nitrosation catalysis at pH 7 and kinetic studies on nitrosamine formation from secondary amines by E. coli strainsCarcinogenesis6911915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chacko, A, Cummings, JH 1988Nitrogen losses from the human small bowel: obligatory losses and the effect of physical form of foodGut29809815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chapman, MAS, Grahn, MF, Boyle, MA, Hutton, M, Rogers, J, Williams, NS 1994Butyrate oxidation is impaired in the colonic mucosa of sufferers of quiescent ulcerative colitisGut357376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Charney, AN, Giannella, RA, Egnor, RW 1999Effect of short-chain fatty acid on cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate-mediated colonic secretionComp Biochem PhysiolA124169178Google Scholar
  29. Cheng, SX, Geibel, JP, Hebert, SC 2004Extracellular polyamines regulate fluid secretion in rat colonic crypts via the extracellular calcium-sensing receptorGastroenterology126148158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christensen, J 1991Gross and microscopic anatomy of the large intestinePhilips, SFPemberton, JHShorter, RG eds. The large intestine: physiology, pathophysiology and diseaseRaven PressNew York1335Google Scholar
  31. Chu, S, Montrose, MH 1995Extracellular pH regulation in microdomains of colonic crypts: effets of short-chain fatty acidsProc Natl Acad Sci USA9233033307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Claudian J (1992) L’évolution de l’alimentation humaine. Alimentation et nutrition humaines. ESF, Paris, pp 39–65Google Scholar
  33. Claus, R, Raab, S 1999Influence of skatole formation from tryptophan in the pig colonAdv Exp Med Biol467679684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Clausen, MR, Mortensen, PB 1995Kinetic studies on colonocyte metabolism of short chain fatty acids and glucose in ulcerative colitisGut37684689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Clinton, SK, Bostwick, DG, Olson, LM, Mangian, HJ, Visek, WJ 1988Effects of ammonium acetate and sodium cholate on N-Methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced colon carcinogenesis of ratsCancer Res4830353039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Codina, J, Pressley, TA, Dubose, TD 1999The colonic H+, K+-ATPase functions as a Na+-dependent K+ (NH4 +)-ATPase in apical membranes from rat distal colonJ Biol Chem281969319698Google Scholar
  37. Cohen, RM, Stephenson, RL, Feldman, GM 1988Bicarbonate secretion modulates ammonium absorption in rat distal colon in vivoAm J Physiol254F657F667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cremin, JD, Fitch, MD, Fleming, SE 2003Glucose alleviates ammonia-induced inhibition of short-chain fatty acid metabolism in rat colonic epithelial cellsAm J Physiol285G105G114Google Scholar
  39. Cross, AJ, Pollock, JR, Bingham, SA 2003Haem, not protein or inorganic iron, is responsible for endogenous intestinal N-nitrosation arising from red meatCancer Res6323582360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cuff, MA, Shirazzi-Beechey, SP 2004The importance of butyrate transport to the regulation of gene expression in the colonic epitheliumBiochem Soc Trans3211001102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cummings, JG 1975The colon: absorptive, secretory and metabolic functionsDigestion13232240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cummings, JH 1978Diet and transit through the gutJ Plant Foods38395Google Scholar
  43. Cummings, JH, Hill, MJ, Bone, ES, Branch, WJ, Jenkins, DJ 1979The effect of meat protein and dietary fiber on colonic function and metabolism. II. Bacterial metabolites in feces and urineAm J Clin Nutr3220942101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dagher, PC, Egnor, RW, Taglietta-Kolbrechter, A, Charney, AN 1996Short-chain fatty acids inhibit cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in rat colonAm J Physiol271C1853C1860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Darcy-Vrillon, B, Morel, MT, Cherbuy, C, Bernard, F, Posho, L, Blachier, F, Meslin, JC, Duée, PH 1993Metabolic characteristics of pig colonocytes after adaptation to a high fiber dietJ Nutr123234243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Darcy-Vrillon, B, Cherbuy, C, Morel, MT, Durand, M, Duée, PH 1996Short chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism in isolated pig colonocytes: modulation by NH4 + Mol Cell Biochem156145151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Darragh, AJ, Granwell, PD, Moughan, PJ 1994Absorption of lysine and methionine from the proximal colon of the pigletBr J Nutr71739752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dawson, TL, Gores, GJ, Nieminen, AL, Herman, B, Lemasters, JJ 1993Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen species during reductive stress in rat hepatocytesAm J Physiol264C961C967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Den Hond, E, Hiele, M, Evenepoel, P, Peeters, M, Ghoos, Y, Rutgeerts, P 1998In vivo butyrate metabolism and colonic permeability in extensive ulcerative colitisGastroenterology115584590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Preter, V, Vanhoutte, T, Huys, G, Swings, J, Rutgeerts, P, Verbeke, K 2006Effect of lactulose and saccharomyces boulardii administration on the colonic urea-nitrogen metabolism and the bifidobacteria concentration in healthy human subjectsAliment Pharmacol Ther23963974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Diener, M, Helme-Kolb, C, Murer, H, Scharrer, E 1993Effect of short-chain fatty acids on cell volume and intracellular pH in rat distal colonPflugers Arch424216223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dijkstra, G, Moshage, H, Van Dullemen, HM, De Jager-Krikken, A, Tiebosch, ATMG, Kleibeuker, JH, Jansen, PLM, Van Goor, H 1998Expression of nitric oxide synthases and formation of nitrotyrosine and reactive oxygen species in inflammatory bowel diseaseJ Pathol186416421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Duranton, B, Nsi-Emvo, E, Schleiffer, R, Gossé, F, Galluser, M, Raul, F 1997Suppression of preneoplastic changes in the intestine of rats fed low levels of polyaminesCancer Res57573575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Elitsur, Y, Moshier, JA, Murthy, R, Barbish, A, Luk, GD 1992Polyamine levels, ornithine decarboxylase activity and ODC mRNA expression in normal and cancerous human colonocytesLife Sci5014171424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Elitsur, Y, Gesell, M, Luk, GD 1993ODC activity and polyamine levels in isolated human colonocytesLife Sci53945952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Elsden, SR, Hitchcock, MWS, Marshall, PA, Phillipson, AT 1946Volatile acid in the digesta of ruminants and other animalsJ Exp Biol22191202Google Scholar
  57. Elsden, SR, Hilton, MG 1978Volatile acid production from threonine, valine, leucine and isoleucine by clostridiaArch Microbiol117165172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Evenepoel, P, Claus, D, Geypens, B, Hiele, M, Geboes, K, Rutgeerts, P, Ghoos, Y 1999Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humansAm J Physiol277G935G943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ferretti, M, Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Venturi, A, Stella, P, Corti, F, Mizrahi, J, Migliori, M, Campieri, M 1997Intracolonic release of nitric oxide during trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid rat colitisDig Dis Sci4226062611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Finnie, IA, Taylor, BA, Rhodes, JM 1993Ileal and colonic epithelial metabolism in quiescent ulcerative colitis: increased glutamine metabolism in distal colon but no defect in butyrate metabolismGut3415521558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fioramonti, J, Fargeas, MJ, Bertrand, V, Pradayrol, L, Bueno, L 1994Induction of posprandial intestinal motility and release of cholecystokinin by polyamines in ratsAm J Physiol267G960G965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Florin, THJ, Neale, G, Cummings, JH 1990The effect of dietary nitrate on nitrate and nitrite excretion in manBr J Nutr64387397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Florin, T, Neale, G, Gibson, GR, Christl, SU, Cummings, JH 1991Metabolism of dietary sulphate: absorption and excretion in humansGut32766773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fuller, MF, Reeds, PJ 1998Nitrogen recycling in the gutAnnu Rev Nutr18385411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gale, EF 1940The production of amine by bacteria. The production of tyramine by streptococcus faecalisBiochem J34846852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gamet, L, Cazenave, Y, Trocheris, V, Denis-Pouxviel, C, Murat, JC 1991Involvment of ornithine decarboxylase in the control of proliferation of the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on enzyme activityInt J Cancer47633638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gaudichon, C, Mahe, S, Benamouzig, R, Luengo, C, Fouillet, H, Dare, S, Van Oycke, M, Ferriere, F, Rautureau, J, Tome, D 1999Net posprandial utilization of [15N]-labeled milk protein nitrogen is influenced by diet composition in humansJ Nutr129890895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gaudio, E, Taddei, G, Vetuschi, A, Sferra, R, Frieri, G, Ricciardi, G, Caprilli, R 1999Dextran sulfate sodium colitis in rats: clinical structural, and ultrastructural aspectsDig Dis Sci4414581475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gausseres, N, Mahe, S, Benamouzig, R, Luengo, C, Drouet, H, Rautureau, J, Tome, D 1996The gastro-ileal digestion of 15-N labelled pea nitrogen in adult humansBr J Nutr767585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gerhardsson de Verdier, M, Hagman, U, Steineck, G, Rieger, A, Norell, SE 1990Diet, body mass and colorectal cancer: a case-referent studyInt J Cancer46832838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Geypens, B, Claus, D, Evenepoel, P, Hiele, M, Maes, B, Peeters, M, Rutgeerts, P, Ghoos, Y 1997Influence of dietary protein supplements on the formation of bacterial metabolites in the colonGut417076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gibson, GR, Cummings, JH, Macfarlane, GT 1988Competition for hydrogen between sulphate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria from the human large intestineJ Appl Bacteriol65241247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gibson, JA, Sladem, GE, Dawson, AM 1976Protein absorption and ammonia production: the effects of dietary protein and removal of the colonBr J Nutr356165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ginty, DD, Osborne, DL, Seidel, ER 1989Putrescine stimulates DNA synthesis in intestinal epithelial cellsAm J Physiol257G145G150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Giovanucci, E, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Ascherio, A, Willett, WC 1994Intake of fat, meat and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in menCancer Res5429302997Google Scholar
  76. Goldhom, RA, van den Brandt, PA, van’t Veer, P, Brants, HA, Dorant, E, Sturmans, F, Hermus, RJ 1994A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancerCancer Res54718723Google Scholar
  77. Goretski, J, Zafiriou, OC, Hollocher, TC 1990Steady-state nitric oxide concentrations during denetrificationJ Biol Chem2651153511538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Govers, MJAP, Gannon, NJ, Dunshea, FR, Gibson, PR, Muir, JG 1999Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigsGut45840847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Green, LC, Ruiz de Luzuriaga, K, Wagner, DA, Rand, W, Istfan, N, Young, VR, Tannenbaum, SR 1981Nitrate biosynthesis in manProc Natl Acad Sci USA7877647768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Grieshaber, MK, Vökel, S 1998Animal adaptations for tolerance and exploitation of poisonous sulfideAnnu Rev Physiol603353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Grillo, MA, Colombatto, S 2004Metabolism and function in animal tissues of agmatine, a biogenic amine formed from arginineAmino Acids2638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Guihot, G, Guimbaud, R, Bertrand, V, Narcy-Lambare, B, Couturier, D, Duée, PH, Chaussade, S, Blachier, F 2000Inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in colon biopsies from inflammatory areas: correlation with inflammation intensity in patients with ulcerative colitis but not with Crohn’s diseaseAmino Acids18229237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Handlogten, ME, Hong, SP, Zhang, L, Vander, AW, Steinbaum, ML, Campbell-Thomson, M, Weiner, ID 2005Expression of the ammonia transporter proteins Rh B glycoprotein and RhC glycoprotein in the intestinal tractAm J Physiol288G1036G1047Google Scholar
  84. Hasselblatt, P, Warth, R, Schulz-Baldes, A, Greger, R, Bleich, M 2000pH regulation in isolated in vitro perfused rat colonic cryptsPflugers Arch-Eur J Physiol441118124Google Scholar
  85. Hatanaka, T, Huang, W, Nakanishi, T, Bridges, CC, Smith, SB, Prasad, PD, Ganapathy, ME, Ganapathy, V 2002Transport of D-serine via the amino acid transporter ATB (O,+) expressed in the colonBiochem Biophys Res Commun291291295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Heby, O, Persson, L 1990Molecular genetics of polyamine synthesis in enkaryotic cellsTrends Biochem Sci15153158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Heerdt, BG, Houston, MA, Augenlicht, LH 1994Potentiation by specific short-chain fatty acids of differentiation and apoptosis in human colonic carcinoma cell linesCancer Res5432883294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Heijnen, MLA, Deurenberg, P, Van Amelsvoort, JMM, Beynen, AC 1997Retrograded but not uncooked resistant starch lowers fecal ammonia concentrations in healthy menAm J Clin Nutr65167169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Heinen, A, Brüss, M, Bönish, H, Göthert, M, Molderings, GJ 2003Pharmacological characteristics of the specific transporter for the endogenous cell growth inhibitor agmatine in six tumor cells linesInt J Colorectal Dis18314319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hogaboam, CM, Jacobson, K, Collins, SM, Blennerhasset, MG 1995The selective beneficial effects of nitric oxide inhibition in experimental colitisAm J Physiol268G673G784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hoskins, LC, Boulding, ET 1981Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystemsJ Clin Invest67163172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Howell, ML, Schroth, GP, Shing Ho, P 1996Sequence-dependent effects of spermine on the thermodynamics of the B-DNA to Z-DNA transitionBiochemistry351537315382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hughes, R, Magee, EAM, Bingham, S 2000Protein degradation in the large intestine: relevance to colorectal cancerCurr Issues Intest Microbiol15158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hughes, R, Cross, AJ, Pollock, JRA, Bingham, S 2001Dose-dependent effect of dietary meat on endogenous colonic N-nitrosationCarcinogenesis22199202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hulin, SJ, Singh, S, Chapman, MAS, Allan, A, Langman, MJS, Eggo, MC 2002Sulphide-induced energy deficiency in colonic cells is prevented by glucose but not by butyrateAliment Pharmacol Ther16325331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hume, ID, Karasov, WH, Darken, BW 1993Acetate, butyrate and proline uptake in the caecum and colon of prairie volesJ Exp Biol176285297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ichikawa, H, Sakata, T 1998Stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation of isolated distal colon of rats by continuous colonic infusion of ammonia or short-chain fatty acids is non additiveJ Nutr128843847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Inoue, H, Jackson, SD, Vikulina, T, Klein, JD, Tomita, K, Bugnasco, SM 2004Identification and characterization of a Kidd antigen/UT-B urea transporter expressed in human colonAm J Physiol287C30C35Google Scholar
  99. Inoue, H, Kozlowski, SD, Klein, JD, Bailey, JL, Sands, JM, Bagnasco, SM 2005Regulated expression of renal and intestinal UT-B urea transporter in response to varying urea loadAm J Physiol289F451F458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jackiewiecz, J, Zhao, Y, Hawes, JW, Shimonura, Y, Crabb, DW, Harris, RA 1996Catabolism of isobutyrate by colonocytesArch Biochem Biophys15265270Google Scholar
  101. Jain, M, Cook, GM, Davis, FG, Grace, MG, Howe, GR, Miller, AB 1980A case control study of diet and colo-rectal cancerInt J Cancer26757768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Jänne, PA, Mayer, RJ 2000Chemoprevention of colorectal cancerN Engl J Med34219601968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Jorgensen, J, Mortensen, PB 2001aHydrogen sulfide and colonic epithelial metabolism: implications for ulcerative colitisDig Dis Sci4617221732Google Scholar
  104. Jorgensen, J, Mortensen, PB 2001bSustrate utilization by intestinal mucosal tissue strips from patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseAm J Physiol281G405G411Google Scholar
  105. Jowett, SL, Seal, CJ, Pearce, MS, Philipps, E, Gregory, W, Barton, JR, Welfare, MR 2005Influence of dietary factors on the clinical course of ulcerative colitis: a prospective cohort studyGut5314791484Google Scholar
  106. Karlin, DA, Mastromarino, AJ, Jones, RD, Stroehlein, JR, Lorentz, O 1985Fecal skatole and indole and breath methane and hydrogen in patients with large bowel polyps or cancerJ Cancer Res Clin Oncol109135141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Karlsson, S, Banhidi, ZG, Albertson, AC 1988Detection by high-performance liquid chromatography of polyamines formed by clostridial putrefaction of caseinsJ Chromatogr442267277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kigugawa, K, Kato, T 1988Formation of mutagenic diazoquinone by interaction of phenol with nitriteFood Chem Toxicol26209214Google Scholar
  109. Kim, YI 2000AGA technical review: impact of dietary fiber on colon cancer occurrenceGastroenterology11812351257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kirsbaum, J, Rebscher, K, Bruckner, H 2000Liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fermented foods after derivatization with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chlorideJ Chromatogr A881517530Google Scholar
  111. Kolios, G, Rooney, N, Murphy, CT, Robertson, DAF, Westwick, J 1998Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in human colon epithelial cells: modulation by T lymphocytes derived cytokinesGut435663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kramer, P 1966The effect of varying sodium loads on the ileal excreta of human ileostomised subjectsJ Clin Invest4517101718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kubes, P 1992Nitric oxide modulates epithelial permeability in the feline small intestineAm J Physiol262G1138G1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kubes, P 1993Ischemia-reperfusion in feline small intestine: a role for nitric oxideAm J Physiol264G143G149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lee, HP, Gourley, L, Duffy, SW, Esteve, J, Lee, J, Day, NE 1989Colorectal cancer and diet in an Asian population: a case control study among Singapore ChineseInt J Cancer4310071016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lee, L, Archer, MC, Bruce, WR 1981Absence of volatile nitrosamines in fecesCancer Res4139923994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Leonard, N, Bishop, AE, Polak, JM, Talbot, IC 1998Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatmentJ Clin Pathol51750753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leschelle, X, Robert, V, Delpal, S, Mouillé, B, Mayeur, C, Martel, P, Blachier, F 2002Isolation of pig colonic crypts for cytotoxic assay of luminal compounds: effects of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and deoxycholic acidCell Biol Toxicol18193203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Leschelle, X, Goubern, M, Andriamihaja, M, Blottière, H, Couplan, E, Gonzalez-Barroso, M, Petit, C, Pagniez, A, Chaumontet, C, Mignotte, B, Bouillaud, F, Blachier, F 2005Adaptative metabolic response of human colonic epithelial cells to the adverse effects of the luminal compound sulfideBiochim Biophys Acta1725201212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Leung, FW, Heng, MC, Allen, S, Seno, K, Leung, JWC, Heng, MK 2000Involvement of luminal bacteria, heat shock protein 60, macrophages and gammadelta T cells in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in ratsDig Dis Sci4514721479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Levine, J, Ellis, CJ, Furne, JK, Springfield, J, Levitt, MD 1998Fecal hydrogen sulfide production in ulcerative colitisAm J Gastroenterol938387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Levitt, MD, Furne, J, Springfield, J, Suarez, F, De Master, E 1999Detoxification of hydrogen sulfide and methanathiol in the cecal mucosaJ Clin Invest10411071114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Levitt, MD, Springfield, J, Furne, J, Koenig, T, Suarez, FL 2002Physiology of sulfide in the rat colon: use of bismuth to assess colonic sulfide productionJ Appl Physiol9216551660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lichtenstein, P, Holm, NV, Verkasalo, PK, Iliadou, A, Kaprio, J, Koskenvuo, M, Pukkala, E, Skytthe, A, Hemminki, K 2000Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancerN Engl J Med3437885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Lin, HC, Visek, WJ 1991aColon mucosal cell damage by ammonia in ratsJ Nutr121887893Google Scholar
  126. Lin, HC, Visek, WJ 1991bLarge intestinal pH and ammonia in rats: dietary fat and protein interactionsJ Nutr121832843Google Scholar
  127. Loret, S, Brolet, P, Pierzynowski, S, Gouders, I, Klimek, M, Danielson, V, Rosted, A, Lesniewska, V, Dandrifosse, G 2000Pancreatic exocrine secretions as a source of luminal polyamines in pigsExp Physiol85301308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Löser, C, Eisel, A, Harms, D, Fölsch, UR 1999Dietary polyamines are essential luminal growth factors for small intestine and colonic mucosal growth and developmentGut441216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lundberg, JON, Hellstrom, PM, Lundberg, JM, Alving, K 1994Greatly increased luminal nitric oxide in ulcerative colitisLancet34416731674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lupton, J, Marchant, LJ 1989Independant effects of fiber and protein on colonic luminal ammonia concentrationJ Nutr119235241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lupton, JR 2004Microbial degradation products influence colon cancer risk: the butyrate controversyJ Nutr134479482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lyon, JL, Mahoney, AW, West, DW, Gardner, JW, Smith, KR, Sorenson, AW, Stanish, W 1987Energy intake: its relationship to colon cancer riskJ Natl Cancer Inst78853861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Mac Bain, JA, Eastman, A, Nobel, CS, Mueller, GC 1997Apoptotic death in adenocarcinoma cell lines induced by butyrate and other histone deacetylase inhibitorsBiochem Pharmacol5313571368Google Scholar
  134. Macfarlane, GT, Allison, C 1986Utilization of protein by human gut bacteriaFEMS Microbiol Ecol381924Google Scholar
  135. Macfarlane, GT, Cummings, JH 1991The colonic flora, fermentation and large bowel digestive functionPhilipps, SFPemberton, JHShorter, RG eds. The large intestine: physiology, pathophysiology and diseaseRaven PressNewYork5192Google Scholar
  136. Macfarlane, GT, Gibson, GR 1995Microbiological aspects of the production of short-chain fatty acids in the large bowelCummings, JHRombeau, JLSakata, T eds. Physiological and clinical aspects of short-chain fatty acidsCambridge University PressCambridge87105Google Scholar
  137. Macfarlane, GT, Cummings, JH, Allison, C 1986Protein degradation by human intestinal bacteriaJ Gen Microbiol13216471656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Macfarlane, GT, Allison, C, Gibson, GR 1988Effect of pH on protease activities in the large intestineLett Appl Microbiol7161164Google Scholar
  139. Macfarlane, GT, Hay, S, Gibson, GR 1989Influence of mucin on glycosidase, protease and arylamidase activities of human gut bacteria grown in a 3-stage continuous culture systemJ Appl Bacteriol66407417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Macfarlane, GT, Gibson, GR, Cummings, JH 1992Comparison of fermentation reactions in different regions of the human colonJ Appl Bacteriol725764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Mac Kendrick, W, Caplan, M, Hsueh, W 1993Endogenous nitric oxide protects against platelet-activating factor-induced bowel injury in the ratPed Res34222228Google Scholar
  142. Magee, EA, Richardson, CJ, Hughes, R, Cummings, JH 2000Contribution of dietary protein to sulfide production in the large intestine: an in vitro and a controlled feeding study in humansAm J Clin Nutr7214881494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Mariotti, F, Pueyo, ME, Tome, D, Berot, S, Benamouzig, R, Mahe, S 2001The influence of the albumin fraction on the bioavailability and postprandial of pea protein given selectively to humansJ Nutr13117061713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mayeur, C, Veuillet, G, Michaud, M, Raul, F, Blottière, H, Blachier, F 2005Effects of agmatine accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells on polyamine metabolism, DNA synthesis and the cell cycleBiochim Biophys Acta1745111123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Mc Cafferty, DM, Mudgett, JS, Swain, MG, Kubes, P 1997Inducible nitric oxide synthase plays a critical role in resolving intestinal inflammationGastroenterology11210221027Google Scholar
  146. Mc Cormack, S, Johnson, LR 1991Role of polyamines in gastrointestinal mucosal growthAm J Physiol260G795G806Google Scholar
  147. Mc Intosh, GH, Le Leu, R 2001The influence of dietary proteins on colon cancer riskNutr Res2110531066Google Scholar
  148. Metges, CC 2000Contribution of microbial amino acids to amino acid homeostasis of the hostJ Nutr1301857S1864SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Metges, CC, Barth, CA 2000Metabolic consequences of a high dietary-protein intake in adulthood: assessment of the available evidenceJ Nutr130886889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Metges, CC, Petzke, KJ, El-Khoury, AE, Henneman, L, Grant, I, Bedri, S, Regan, MM, Fuller, MF, Young, VR 1999Incorporation of urea and ammonia nitrogen into ileal and fecal microbial proteins and plasma free amino acids in normal men and ileostomatesAm J Clin Nutr7010461058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Meyer, F, White, E 1993Alcohol and nutrients in relation to colon cancer in middle-aged adultsAm J Epidemiol138225236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Middleton, SJ, Shorthouse, M, Hunter, JO 1993Increased nitric oxyde synthesis in ulcerative colitisLancet341456466Google Scholar
  153. Miller, MJS, Zhang, XJ, Sadowska-Krowicka, H, Chotinaruemol, S, Mc Intyre, JA, Clark, DA, Bustamante, SA 1993Nitric oxide release in response to gut injuryScand J Gastroenterol28149154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Millward, DJ, Forrester, T, Ah-Singh, E, Yeboah, N, Gibson, N, Badaloo, A, Boyne, M, Reade, M, Persaud, C, Jackson, A 2000The transfer of 15N from urea to lysine in the human infantBr J Nutr83505512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Mirvish, SS, Haorah, J, Zhou, L, Clapper, ML, Harrison, KL, Povey, AC 2002Total N-nitroso-compounds and their precursors in hot dogs and in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rats and mice: possible etiologic agents for colon cancerJ Nutr1323526S3529SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Molderings, GJ, Heinen, A, Menzel, S, Lübbecke, F, Homann, J, Göthert, M 2003Gastrointestinal uptake of agmatine. Distribution in tissues and organs and pathophysiologic relevanceAnn NY Acad Sci10094451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Molderings, GJ, Kribben, B, Heinen, A, Schröder, D, Brüss, M, Göthert, M 2004Intestinal tumor and agmatine (decarboxylated arginine). low content in colon carcinoma tissue specimens and inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation in vitroCancer101858868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Moore, J, Babidge, W, Millard, S, Roediger, W 1998Colonic luminal hydrogen sulfide is not elevated in ulcerative colitisDig Dis Sci43162165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Moore, JW, Babidge, W, Millard, S, Roediger, WEW 1997Effect of sulphide on short chain acyl-CoA metabolism in rat colonocytesGut417781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Moran, BJ, Jackson, AA 199015N-urea metabolism in the functioning human colon: luminal hydrolysis and mucosal permeabilityGut31454457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Morris, SM 2006Arginine: beyond proteinAm J Clin Nutr83508S512SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mortensen, PB, Clausen, MR 1996Short-chain fatty acids in the human colon: relation to gastrointestinal health and diseaseScand J Gastroenterol31132148Google Scholar
  163. Mortensen, PB, Holtug, K, Bonnen, H, Clausen, MR 1990The degradation of amino acids, proteins and blood to short-chain fatty acids in colon is prevented by lactuloseGastroenterology98353360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Mouillé, B, Morel, E, Robert, V, Guihot-Joubrel, G, Blachier, F 1999Metabolic capacity for L-citrulline synthesis from ammonia in rat isolated colonocytesBiochim Biophys Acta1427401407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Mouillé, B, Delpal, S, Mayeur, C, Blachier, F 2003Inhibition of human colon carcinoma cell growth by ammonia: a non cytotoxic process associated with polyamine synthesis reductionBiochim Biophys Acta16248897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Mouillé, B, Robert, V, Blachier, F 2004Adaptative increase of ornithine production and decrease of ammonia metabolism in rat colonocytes after hyperproteic diet ingestionAm J Physiol287G344G351Google Scholar
  167. Musch, MW, Bookstein, C, Xie, Y, Sellin, JH, Chang, EB 2001SCFA increase intestinal Na absorption by induction of NHE3 in rat colon and human intestinal C2/bbe cellsAm J Physiol280G687G693Google Scholar
  168. Naito, Y, Takagi, T, Ishikawa, T, Handa, O, Matsumoto, N, Yagi, N, Matsuyama, N, Yoshida, N, Yoshikawa, T 2001The inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitior ONO-1714 blunts dextran sulfate sodium colitis in miceEur J Pharmacol4129199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Nakanishi, T, Hatanaka, T, Huang, W, Prasad, PD, Leibach, FH, Ganapathy, ME, Ganapathy, V 2001Na+- and Cl coupled active transport of carnitine by the amino acid transporter ATB0+ from mouse colon expressed in HRPE cells and Xenopus oocytesJ Physiol532297304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Nicholls, P 1975The effect of sulphide on cytochrome aa 3. Isosteric and allosteric shifts of the reduced alpha-peakBiochim Biophys Acta3962435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Nicholson, RA, Roth, SH, Zhang, A, Zheng, J, Brokes, J, Shrajny, B, Bennington, R 1998Inhibition of respiratory and bioenergetic mechanisms by hydrogen sulfide in mammalian brainJ Toxicol Env Heal54491507Google Scholar
  172. Niiyama, M, Deguchi, E, Kagota, K, Namioka, S 1979Appearance of 15N-labeled intestinal microbial amino acids in the venous blood of the pig colonAm J Vet Res40716718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Noordgaard, I, Mortensen, PB, Langkilde, AM 1995Small intestinal malabsorption and colonic fermentation of resistant starch and resistant peptides to short-chain fatty acidsNutrition11129137Google Scholar
  174. Novella-Rodriguez, S, Veciana-Nogues, MT, Vidal-Carou, MC 2000Biogenic amines and polyamines in milks and cheeses by ion-pair high performance liquid chromatographyJ Agric Food Chem4851175123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Okamoto, A, Sugi, E, Koizumi, Y, Yanagida, F, Udaka, S 1997Polyamine content of ordinary foodstuffs and various fermented foodsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem6115821584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Osborne, DL, Seidel, ER 1990Gastrointestinal luminal polyamines: cellular accumulation and enterohepatic-circulationAm J Physiol21G576G584Google Scholar
  177. Panagiotis, CA, Blackburn, S, Low, KB, Canellakis, ES 1987Biosynthesis of polyamines in ornithine decarboxylase, arginine decarboxylase and agmatine urehydrolase deletion mutants of Escherichia coli strain K- 12Proc Natl Acad Sci USA8444234427Google Scholar
  178. Papa, S, Guerrieri, F, Capitanio, N 1997A possible role of slips in cytochrome c oxidase in the antioxygen defense system of the cellBiosci Rep172331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Paulsen, JE, Reistad, R, Eliassen, KA, Sjaastad, OV, Alexander, J 1997Dietary polyamines promote the growth of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colonCarcinogenesis1818711875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Pegg, AE, Mc Cann, PP 1982Polyamine metabolism and functionAm J Physiol243C212C221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Pegg, AE, Wechter, R, Pakala, R, Bergeron, RJ 1989Effects of N1, N12-Bis (ethyl) spermine and related compounds on growth and polyamine acetylation, content and excretion in human colon tumor cellsJ Biol Chem2641174411749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Peters, RK, Pike, MC, Garabrant, D, Mack, TM 1992Diet and colon cancer in Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCancer Causes Control3457473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Petersen, LC 1977The effect of inhibitors on the oxygen kinetics of cytochrome c oxidaseBiochim Biophys Acta460299307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Picton, R, Eggo, MC, Merrill, GA, Langman, MJS, Singh, S 2002Mucosal protection against sulphide: importance of the enzyme rhodaneseGut50201205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Pitcher, MC, Pitcher, JM 1996Hydrogen sulfide: a bacterial toxin in ulcerative colitis?Gut3914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Pitcher, MC, Beatty, ER, Cummings, JH 2000The contribution of sulphate reducing bacteria and 5-aminosalicylic acid to faecal sulphide in patients with ulcerative colitisGut466472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Potter, JD, Mc Michael, AJ 1986Diet and cancer of the colon and rectum: a case-control studyJ Natl Cancer Inst76557569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Prasad, M, Smith, JA, Resnick, A, Awtrey, CS, Hrnjez, BJ, Matthews, JB 1995Ammonia inhibits cAMP-regulated intestinal Cl transport. A symetric effects of apical and basolateral exposure and implications for epithelial barrier functionJ Clin Invest9621422151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Rachmilewitz, D, Karmeli, F, Okon, E, Bursztyn, M 1995aExperimental colitis is ameliorated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activityGut37247255Google Scholar
  190. Rachmilewitz, D, Stamler, JS, Bachwich, D, Karmeli, F, Ackerman, Z, Podolski, DK 1995bEnhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s diseaseGut36718723Google Scholar
  191. Radcliffe, BC, Nance, SH, Deakin, EJ, Roediger, WE 1987Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the ratAm J Physiol253G246G252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Ramakrishna, BS, Roberts-Thomson, IC, Pannall, PR, Roediger, WEW 1991Impaired sulphation of phenol by the colonic mucosa in quiescent and active ulcerative colitisGut324649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Rand, WM, Pellett, PL, Young, VR 2003Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in health adultsAm J Clin Nutr77109127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Rasmussen, HS, Holtug, K, Mortensen, PB 1988Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. An in vitro studyScand J Gastroenterol23178182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Rechkemmer, G, Ronnan, K, Engelhardt, W 1988Fermentation of polysaccharides and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the mammalian hindgutComp Biochem Physiol90A563568Google Scholar
  196. Reiffenstein, RJ, Hulbert, WC, Roth, SH 1992Toxicology of hydrogen sulfideAnnu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol32109134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rhodes, PM, Leone, AM, Francis, PL, Struthers, AD, Moncada, S 1995The L-arginine: nitric oxide pathway is the major source of plasma nitrite in fasted humansBiochem Biophys Res Commun209590596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Ribbons, KA, Zhang, XJ, Thompson, JH, Greenberg, SS, Moore, WM, Kornmeier, CM, Currie, MG, Lerche, N, Blanchard, J, Clark, DA, Miller, MJS 1995Potential role of nitric oxide in a model of chronic colitis in rhesus macaquesGastroenterology108705711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Ricquier, D, Bouillaud, F 2000The uncoupling protein homologues: UCP 1, UCP 2, UCP 3, St UCP and At UCPBiochem J345161179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Roediger, WEW 1980The colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis: an energy-deficiency disease?Lancet2712715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Roediger, WE 1982Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colonGastroenterology83424429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Roediger, WEW, Radcliffe, BC 1988Role of nitrite and nitrate as a redox couple in the rat colonGastroenterology94915922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Roediger, WE, Babidge, WJ 2000Thiol methyltransferase activity in inflammatory bowel diseaseGut47206210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Roediger, WEW, Duncan, A, Kapanaris, O, Millard, S 1993Reducing sulfur compounds of the colon impair colonocyte nutrition: implications for ulcerative colitisGastroenterology104802809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Roediger, WEW, Moore, J, Babidge, W 1997Colonic sulfide in pathogenesis and treatment of ulcerative colitisDig Dis Sci4215711579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Roon, RJ, Barker, HA 1972Fermentation of agmatine in streptococcus faecalis: occurrence of putrescine transcarbamoylaseJ Bacteriol1094450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Saarnio, J, Parkkila, S, Parkilla, AK, Waheed, A, Karttunen, T, Sly, WS 1999Cell-specific expression of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in the human and rat gastrointestinal tractJ Histochem Cytochem47517524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Satishchandram, C, Boyle, SM 1986Purification and properties of agmatine ureohydrolyase, a putrescine biosynthetic enzyme in Escherichia coliJ Bacteriol165843848Google Scholar
  209. Schaafsma, G 2000The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scoreJ Nutr1301865S1867SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Scheiden, R, Sand, J, Pandin, M, Wagener, Y, Capesius, C 2000Colorectal high-grade adenomas: incidence, localization and adenoma-adenocarcinoma ratio in a retrospective and comparative population-based study of 225 consecutive cases between 1988 and 1996Int J Colorectal Dis152934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Schuber, F 1989Influence of polyamines on membrane functionsBiochem J260110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Seidel, ER, Scemama, JL 1997Gastrointestinal polyamines and regulation of mucosal growth and functionJ Nutr Biochem8104111Google Scholar
  213. Seo, HG, Takata, I, Nakamura, M, Tatsumi, H, Suzuki, K, Fujii, J, Taniguchi, N 1995Induction of nitric oxide synthase and concomitant suppression of superoxide dismutase in experimental colitis in ratsArch Biochem Biophys3244147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Shaibe, E, Metzer, E, Halpern, YS 1985Metabolic pathway for the utilization of L-arginine, L-ornithine, agmatine and putrescine as nitrogen sources in Escherichia coli K-12J Bacteriol163933937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Shaw, L, Engel, PC 1987CoA-persulphide: a possible in vivo inhibitor of mammalian short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseBiochim Biophys Acta919171174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Shawcross, D, Jalan, R 2005Dispelling myths in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathyLancet365431433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sheppach, W 1994Effects of short chain fatty acids on gut morphology and functionGut1S35S38Google Scholar
  218. Siavoshian, S, Blottière, HM, Le Foll, E, Kaeffer, B, Cherbut, C, Galmiche, JP 1997Comparison of the effect of different short chain fatty acids on the growth and differentiation of human colonic carcinoma cell lines in vitroCell Biol Int21281287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Silvester, KR, Cummings, JH 1995Does digestibility of meat protein help explain large bowel cancer risk?Nutr Cancer24279288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Singer, II, Kawka, DW, Scott, S, Weidner, JR, Mumford, RA, Riehl, TE, Stenson, WF 1996Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine in colonic epithelium in inflammatory bowel diseaseGastroenterology111871885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Simon, JP, Stalon, V 1982Enzymes of agmatine degradation and the control of their synthesis in streptococcus faecalisJ Bacteriol152676681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Singh, SK, Binder, HJ, Geibel, JP, Boron, WF 1995An apical permeability barrier to NH3/NH4 + in isolated perfused colonic cryptsProc Natl Acad Sci USA921157311577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Slattery, ML, Schumacher, MC, Smith, KR, West, DW, Abd-Elghany, N 1988Physical activity, diet and risk of colon cancer in UtahAm J Epidemiol128989999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Smiddy, FG, Gregory, SD, Smith, IB, Goligher, JC 1960Fecal loss of fluid, electrolytes and nitrogen in colitis before and after ileostomyLancet11419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Smith, EA, Macfarlane, GT 1996Enumeration of human colonic bacteria producing phenolic and indolic compounds: effects of pH, carbohydrate availability and retention time on dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolismJ Appl Bacteriol81288302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Smith, CP, Potter, EA, Fenton, RA, Stewart, GS 2004Characterization of a human colonic c DNA encoding a structurally novel urea transporter, h UT-A6Am J Physiol287C1087C1093Google Scholar
  227. Sobko, T, Reinders, C, Norin, E, Midtvedt, T, Gustafsson, LE, Lundberg, JO 2004Gastrointestinal nitric oxide generation in germ-free and conventional ratsAm J Physiol287G993G997Google Scholar
  228. Stewart, GS, Fenton, RA, Thevenod, F, Smith, CP 2004Urea movement across mouse colonic plasma membranes is mediated by UT-A urea transportersGastroenterology126765773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Suarez, F, Furne, J, Springfield, J, Levitt, M 1998Production and elimination of sulfur-containing gases in the rat colonAm J Physiol274G727G733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Sugimura, T 2000Nutrition and dietary carcinogensCarcinogenesis21387395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Summerskill, WHJ, Wolpert, E 1970Ammonia metabolism in the gutAm J Clin Nutr22633634Google Scholar
  232. Suzuki, K, Mitsuoka, T 1981Increase in faecal nitrosamines in Japanese individuals given a Western dietNature294453455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Suzuki, K, Mitsuoka, T 1985Reevaluation of volatile nitrosamines in human faecesEnv Toxicol Chem4623627Google Scholar
  234. Swanson, KS, Grieshop, CM, Flickinger, EA, Bauer, LL, Wolf, BW, Chow, J, Garleb, KA, Williams, JA, Fahey, GC 2002Fructooligosaccharides and lactobacillus acidophilus modify bowel function and protein catabolites excreted by healthy humansJ Nutr13230423050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Tamaru, T, Kobayashi, H, Kishimoto, S, Kajiyama, G, Shimamoto, F, Brown, WR 1993Histochemical study of colonic cancer in experimental colitis in ratsDig Dis Sci38529537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Thomas, T, Thomas, TJ 2001Polyamines in cell growth and cell death: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applicationsCell Mol Life Sci58244258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Toden, S, Bird, AR, Topping, DL, Conlon, MA 2005Resistant starch attenuates colonic DNA damage induced by higher dietary proteins in ratsNutr Cancer514551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Torrallardona, D, Harris, CI, Coates, ME, Fuller, M 1996Microbial amino acid synthesis and utilization in rats: incorporation of 15N from 15NH4Cl into lysine in the tissues of germ-free and conventional ratsBr J Nutr76689700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Tuyns, AJ, Haelterman, M, Kaaks, R 1987Colorectal cancer and the intake of nutrients: oligosaccharides are a risk factor, fats are not: a case-control study on BelgiumNutr Cancer10181196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Ugawa, S, Sunouchi, Y, Ueda, T, Takahashi, E, Saishin, Y, Shimada, S 2001Characterization of mouse colonic system Bo+ amino acid transporter related to amino acid absorption in colonAm J Physiol281G365G370Google Scholar
  241. Vince, AJ, Burridge, SM 1980Ammonia production by intestinal bacteria: the effects of lactose, lactulose and glucoseJ Med Microbiol13177191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Visek, WJ 1968Some aspects of ammonia toxicity in animal cellsJ Dairy Sc51286295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Wallace, HM, Caslake, R 2001Polyamines and colon cancerEur J Gastroenterol Hepatol1310331039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wang, T, Kakizoe, T, Dion, P, Furrer, R, Varghese, AJ, Bruce, WR 1978Volatile nitrosamines in normal human faecesNature276280281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Watt, J, Marcus, R 1973Experimental ulcerative disease of the colon in animalsGut14506510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Weber, FL 1997Effects of lactulose on nitrogen metabolismScand J Gastroenterol328387Google Scholar
  247. Weisiger, RA, Pinkus, LM, Jakoby, WB 1980Thiol S-methyl transferase: suggested role in detoxication of intestinal hydrogen sulfideBiochem Pharmacol2928852887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. West, DW, Slattery, ML, Robinson, LM, Schuman, KL, Ford, MH, Mahoney, AW, Lyon, JL, Sorensen, AW 1989Dietary intake and colon cancer: sex and anatomic site-specific associationsAm J Epidemiol130883894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Whitemore, AS, Wu-Williams, AH, Lee, M, Zheng, S, Gallagher, RP, Jiao, DA, Zhou, L, Wang, XH, Chen, K, Jung, D, Teh, C, Chengde, L, Yao, XJ, Paffenbarger, RS, Henderson, BE 1990Diet, physical activity and colorectal cancer among Chinese in North America and ChinaJ Natl Cancer Inst82915926Google Scholar
  250. Whitt, DD, Demoss, RD 1975Effect of microflora on the free amino acid distribution in various regions of the mouse gastrointestinal tractAppl Microbiol30609615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Willett, WC 2002Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease preventionScience296695698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Witter, JP, Gatley, SJ, Balish, E 1979Distribution of nitrogen-13 from labelled nitrate (13N03) in humans and ratsScience204411413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Witthöf, T, Eckmann, L, Jung Mogg, K, Kagnoff, MF 1998Enteroinvasive bacteria directly activate expression of i NOS and NO production in human colon epithelial cellsAm J Physiol275G564G571Google Scholar
  254. Wolpert, E, Philipps, SF, Summerskill, WHJ 1971Transport of urea and ammonia production in the human colonLancet213871390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Wrong, O, Metcalfe-Gibson, A, Morrison, RBI, Ng, ST, Howard, A 1965In vivo dialysis of faeces as a method of stool analysisClin Sci28357375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Wrong, OM, Vince, A 1984Urea and ammonia metabolism in the human large intestineProc Nutr Soc437786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Wrong, OM, Vince, AJ, Waterlow, JC 1985The contribution of endogenous urea to faecal ammonia in man determined by 15N labelling of plasma ureaClin Sci68193199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Wurmli, R, Wolffram, S, Scharrer, E 1987Influence of nitrate and nitrite on electrolyte transport by the rat small and large intestineComp Biochem Physiol A88127129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Yokoyama, MT, Carlson, JR 1979Microbial metabolites of tryptophan in the intestinal tract with special reference to skatoleAm J Clin Nutr32173178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Zaharia, V, Varzescu, M, Djavadi, I, Newman, E, Egnor, RW, Alexander-Chacko, J, Charney, AN 2001Effects of short chain fatty acids on colonic Na+ absorption and enzyme activityComp Biochem Physiol A128335347Google Scholar
  261. Zimber, A, Visek, WJ 1972Effect of urease injections on DNA synthesis in miceAm J Clin Nutr22310041008Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Blachier
    • 1
  • F. Mariotti
    • 1
  • J. F. Huneau
    • 1
  • D. Tomé
    • 1
  1. 1.Unité Mixte de Recherche de Physiologie de la Nutrition et du Comportement Alimentaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique – Institut National Agronomique Paris-GrignonParisFrance

Personalised recommendations