Hallmarks of protein oxidative damage in neurodegenerative diseases: focus on Alzheimer’s disease
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The pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, has been linked to a condition of oxidative and nitrosative stress, arising from the imbalance between increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production and antioxidant defences or efficiency of repair or removal systems. The effects of free radicals are expressed by the accumulation of oxidative damage to biomolecules: nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. In this review we focused our attention on the large body of evidence of oxidative damage to protein in Alzheimer’s disease brain and peripheral cells as well as in their role in signalling pathways. The progress in the understanding of the molecular alterations underlying Alzheimer’s disease will be useful in developing successful preventive and therapeutic strategies, since available drugs can only temporarily stabilize the disease, but are not able to block the neurodegenerative process.
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