The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis
Article First Online: 24 March 2006 Received: 10 October 2005 Accepted: 18 October 2005 Summary.
β-Alanine in blood-plasma when administered as A) histidine dipeptides (equivalent to 40 mg · kg
−1 bwt of β-alanine) in chicken broth, or B) 10, C) 20 and D) 40 mg · kg −1 bwt β-alanine (CarnoSyn™, NAI, USA), peaked at 428 ± SE 66, 47 ± 13, 374 ± 68 and 833 ± 43 µM. Concentrations regained baseline at 2 h. Carnosine was not detected in plasma with A) although traces of this and anserine were found in urine. Loss of β-alanine in urine with B) to D) was <5%. Plasma taurine was increased by β-alanine ingestion but this did not result in any increased loss via urine. Pharmacodynamics were further investigated with 3 × B) per day given for 15 d. Dietary supplementation with I) 3.2 and II) 6.4 g · d −1 β-alanine (as multiple doses of 400 or 800 mg) or III) L-carnosine (isomolar to II) for 4 w resulted in significant increases in muscle carnosine estimated at 42.1, 64.2 and 65.8%. Keywords: Carnosine – β-Alanine – Muscle – Buffering – Intracellular pH References Abe, H 2000 Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents in vertebrate muscle Biochemistry (Mosc) 65 757 765 Google Scholar Asatoor, AM, Bardon, JK, Lant, AF, Milne, MD, Navab, F 1970 Intestinal absorption of carnosine and its constituent amino acids in man Gut 11 250 254 PubMed Google Scholar Bakardjiev, A, Bauer, K 1994 Transport of β-alanine and biosynthesis of carnosine by skeletal muscle cells in primary culture Eur J Biochem 225 617 623 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Bate-Smith, EC 1938 The buffering of muscle in rigor: protein, phosphate and carnosine J Physiol 92 336 343 Google Scholar Batrukova, MA, Rubtsov, AM 1997 Histidine-containing dipeptides as endogenous regulators of the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-release channels Biochem Biophys Acta 1324 142 150 PubMed Google Scholar Bergström, J 1962 Muscle electrolytes in man. Determined by neutron activation analysis on needle biopsy specimens. A study on normal subjects, kidney patients and patients with chronic diarrhoea Scand J Clin Lab Invest 14 1 110 Google Scholar Boldyrev, AA, Koldobski, A, Kurella, E, Maltseva, V, Stvolinski, S 1993 Natural histidine-containing dipeptide carnosine as a potent hydrophilic antioxidant with membrane stabilizing function. A biomedical aspect Mol Chem Neuropathol 19 185 192 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Chan, WK, Decker, EA, Chow, CK, Boissonneault, GA 1994 Effect of dietary carnosine on plasma and tissue antioxidant concentrations and on lipid oxidation in rat skeletal muscle Lipids 29 461 466 PubMed Google Scholar Dawson, R, Jr, Biasetti, M, Messina, S, Dominy, J 2002 The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury Amino Acids 22 309 324 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Dieck, ST, Heuer, H, Ehrchen, J, Otto, C, Bauer, K 1999 The peptide transporter PepT2 is expressed in rat brain and mediates the accumulation of the fluorescent dipeptide derivative beta-Ala-Lys-Nepsilon-AMCA in astrocytes Glia 25 10 20 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar
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