Scavenger receptors for oxidized and glycated proteins
Our present knowledge on chemically modified proteins and their receptor systems is originated from a proposal by Goldstein and Brown in 1979 for the receptor for acetylated LDL which is involved in foam cell formation, one of critical steps in atherogenesis. Subsequent extensive studies using oxidized LDL (OxLDL) as a representative ligand disclosed at least 11 different scavenger receptors which are collectively categorized as “scavenger receptor family”. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) and their receptor systems have been studied independently until recent findings that AGE-proteins are also recognized as active ligands by scavenger receptors including class A scavenger receptor (SR-A), class B scavenger receptors such as CD36 and SR-BI, type D scavenger receptor (LOX-1) and FEEL-1/FEEL-2. Three messages can be summarized from these experiments; (i) endocytic uptake of OxLDL and AGE-proteins by macrophages or macrophage-derived cells is mainly mediated by SR-A and CD36, which is an important step for foam cell formation in the early stage of atherosclerosis, (ii) selective uptake of cholesteryl esters of high density lipoprotein (HDL) mediated by SR-BI is inhibited by AGE-proteins, suggesting a potential pathological role of AGE in a HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport system, (iii) a novel scavenger receptor is involved in hepatic clearance of plasma OxLDL and AGE-proteins.
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