Applied Magnetic Resonance

, Volume 50, Issue 9, pp 1083–1097 | Cite as

Design and Simulation of a Helmholtz Coil for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Experiments with a 3T MR Clinical Scanner

  • Giulio GiovannettiEmail author
  • Francesca Frijia
  • Alessandra Flori
  • Domenico Montanaro
Original Paper


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are non-invasive techniques for tissue characterization. MRI/MRS in small phantoms with a clinical magnetic resonance scanner requires the design and development of dedicated radiofrequency coils. This paper describes the simulation, design, and application of a 1H transmit/receive Helmholtz coil, suitable for MRI/MRS studies in small phantoms with a clinical 3T scanner. Coil inductance and resistance were analytically calculated by taking into account the conductors cross geometry while magnetic field and sample-induced resistance were calculated with magnetostatic approaches. Finally, the coil sensitivity was measured with the perturbing sphere method. Successively, a coil prototype was built and tested on the workbench and by acquisition of MRI and MRS data. Results show that such coil could provide a low cost and easy to build device for MRI/MRS experiments with a clinical scanner in small specimens.



  1. 1.
    M.F. Santarelli, V. Positano, G. Giovannetti, F. Frijia, L. Menichetti, J.H. Ardenkjaer-Larsen, D. De Marchi, V. Lionetti, G. Aquaro, M. Lombardi, L. Landini, NMR in Biomed. 25, 925–934 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.I. Hoult, R.E. Richards, J. Magn. Reson. 24, 71–85 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Derby, J. Tropp, C. Hawryszko, J. Magn. Reson. 86, 645–651 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Jin, Electromagnetic Analysis and Design in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CRC, Boca Raton, 1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Mispelter, M. Lupu, A. Briguet, NMR Probeheads for Biophysical and Biomedical Experiments (Imperial College Press, London, 2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Giovannetti, Conc. Magn. Reson. Part B 46B, 146–155 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.E. Hurlston, G.P. Cofer, G.A. Johnson, Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 8, 277–284 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Chen, D.J. Hoult, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Technology (IOP, Bristol, 1989)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.D. Harpen, Med. Phys. 14(4), 616–618 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Darrasse, G. Kassab, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1841–1844 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Alecci, I. Seimenis, S.J. McCallum, D.J. Lurie, M.A. Foster, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1899–1905 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Giovannetti, F. Frijia, L. Menichetti, J.H. Ardenkjaer-Larsen, V. Hartwig, D. De Marchi, V. Positano, L. Landini, M. Lombardi, M.F. Santarelli, Appl. Magn. Reson. 42, 511–518 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Schirmer, B. Wener, I. Hancu, E. Martin, Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med. 13, 2504 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B.S. Li, J. Regal, O. Gonen, Magn. Reson. Med. 46(6), 1049–1053 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.C. Taylor, M. Burl, J.W. Hand, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1395–1402 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Giovannetti, V. Hartwig, L. Landini, M.F. Santarelli, Appl. Magn. Reson. 39, 391–399 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Giovannetti, G. Tiberi, Appl. Magn. Reson. 47, 601–612 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Giovannetti, V. Hartwig, L. Landini, M.F. Santarelli, Appl. Magn. Reson. 40, 351–361 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N.R. Jagannathan, M. Kumar, V. Seenu, O. Coshic, S.N. Dwivedi, P.K. Julka, A. Srivastava, G.K. Rath, Br. J. Cancer 84(8), 1016–1022 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Castillo, J.K. Smith, L. Kwock, Am. J. Neuroradiol. 21(9), 1645–1649 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of ResearchPisaItaly
  2. 2.U.O.C. Bioengineering and Clinical TechnologyFondazione G. Monasterio CNR/Regione ToscanaPisaItaly
  3. 3.U.O.C. Specialistic MRI and NeuroradiologyFondazione G. Monasterio CNR/Regione Toscana G. MonasterioPisa/MassaItaly

Personalised recommendations