13C Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Using Derivatives of TEMPO Free Radical
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The nitroxide-based 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) free radical is widely used in 13C dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to its relatively low cost, commercial availability, and effectiveness as polarizing agent. While a large number of TEMPO derivatives are available commercially, so far, only few have been tested for use in 13C DNP. In this study, we have tested and evaluated the 13C hyperpolarization efficiency of eight derivatives of TEMPO free radical with different side arms in the 4-position. In general, these TEMPO derivatives were found to have slight variations in efficiency as polarizing agents for DNP of 3 M [1-13C] acetate in 1:1 v/v ethanol:water at 3.35 T and 1.2 K. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed no significant differences in the spectral features among these TEMPO derivatives. 2H enrichment of the ethanol:water glassing matrix resulted in further improvement of the solid-state 13C DNP signals by factor of 2 to 2.5-fold with respect to the 13C DNP signal of non-deuterated DNP samples. These results suggest an interaction between the nuclear Zeeman reservoirs and the electron dipolar system via the thermal mixing mechanism.
This work was supported in part by the US Department of Defense Grant Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation grant number AT-1877. All DNP experiments were performed at the Advanced Imaging Research Center (AIRC) at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The AIRC DNP facility is funded by the National Institutes of Health Grant Number 8P41-EB015908.
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