Applied Magnetic Resonance

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 1139–1165 | Cite as

Shallow Donors and Deep-Level Color Centers in Bulk AlN Crystals: EPR, ENDOR, ODMR and Optical Studies

  • Victor A. Soltamov
  • Ivan V. Ilyin
  • Alexandra A. Soltamova
  • Daniel O. Tolmachev
  • Nikolai G. Romanov
  • Alexandr S. Gurin
  • Vladimir A. Khramtsov
  • Eugene N. Mokhov
  • Yurii N. Makarov
  • Georgy V. Mamin
  • Sergei B. Orlinskii
  • Pavel G. Baranov


The results of studies of shallow donors and deep-level color centers in bulk AlN crystals are presented. Two shallow donors (presumably oxygen located on the nitrogen site and carbon located on the aluminum site) are suggested to exhibit the DX-relaxation. Third shallow donor (presumably silicon on the Al site) shows the shallow donor behavior up to the room temperature and can be observed without light excitation at temperatures above 200 K. The values of the Bohr radius of the shallow donors are estimated. The structure of deep-level color centers (neutral nitrogen vacancy V N) in bulk AlN crystals is determined and analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance, electron-nuclear double resonance, optical absorption and thermoluminescence induced by X-ray irradiation. Spin-dependent recombination processes in AlN crystals are studied by means of optically detected magnetic resonance.



This work has been supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Russia, under the contract nos. 8017 and 8568; by the programs of the Russian Academy of Sciences: “Spin Phenomena in Solid State Nanostructures and Spintronics” and “Fundamentals of nanostructure and nanomaterial technologies”, and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under grant nos. 12-02-01011, 13-02-00821 and 13-02-00802.


  1. 1.
    B. Monemar, P.P. Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, Phys. Status Sol. B 244, 1759 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.A. Baraff, E.O. Kane, M. Schluter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 956 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.D. Watkins, J.R. Troxell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 593 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.J. Chadi, K.J. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 873 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.H. Park, D.J. Chadi, Phys. Rev. B 55, 12995 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Boguslawski, J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9496 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.G. Vande Walle, Phys. Rev. B 57, R2033 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Zeisel, M.W. Bayerl, S.T.B. Goennenwein, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M.S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R16283 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.W. Bayerl, M.S. Brandt, T. Graf, O. Ambacher, J.A. Majewski, M. Stutzmann, D.J. As, K. Lischka, Phys. Rev. B 63, 165204 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.B. Orlinskii, J. Schmidt, P.G. Baranov, M. Bickermann, B.M. Epelbaum, A. Winnacker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256404 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    V.A. Soltamov, I.V. Ilyin, A.A. Soltamova, E.N. Mokhov, P.G. Baranov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113515 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.R. Glaser, T.A. Kennedy, W.E. Carlos, J.A. Freitas Jr., A.E. Wickenden, D.D. Koleske, Phys. Rev. B 57, 57–8957 (1998)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Irmscher, T. Schulz, M. Albrecht, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, Fornari R Phys. B (2007) 401–402, 323Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.M. Mason, H. Przybylinska, G.D. Watkins, W.J. Choyke, G.A. Slack, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1937 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.M. Evans, N.G. Giles, L.E. Halliburton, G.A. Slack, S.B. Schujman, L.J. Schowalter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 062112 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.M. Hofmann, A. Hofstaetter, F. Leiter, H. Zhou, F. Henecker, B.K. Meyer, S.B. Orlinskii, J. Schmidt, P.G. Baranov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 045504 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.B. Orlinskii, J. Schmidt, P.G. Baranov, V. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 115334 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.v. Duijn-Arnold, T. Ikoma, O.G. Poluektov, P.G. Baranov, E.N. Mokhov, J. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B 57, 1607 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E.N. Mokhov, O.V. Avdeev, I.S. Barash, T.Y. Chemekova, A.D. Roenkov, A.S. Segal, A.A. Wolfson, Y.u.N. Makarov, M.G. Ramm, H. Helava, J. Cryst. Growth 281, 93 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W.E. Carlos, J.A. Freitas, M. Asif Khan, D.T. Olson, J.N. Kuznia, Phys. Rev. B 48, 17878 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Feher, Phys. Rev. 144, 1219 (1959)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B.K. Meyer, H. Alves, D.M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, A.V. Rodina, Phys. Status Sol. B 241, 231 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G.A. Slack, L.J. Schowalter, D. Morelli, J.A. Freitas Jr., (2002) J. Cryst. Growth 246, 287Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu.N. Makarov, O.V. Avdeev, I.S. et al., J. Cryst. Growth. Dev. Aging 310, 881 (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Lu, R. Collazo, R.F. Dalmau, G. Durkaya, N. Dietz, Z. Sitar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131922 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Yang, S.M. Evans, L.E. Halliburton, G.A. Slack, S.B. Shujman, K.E. Morgan, R.T. Bondokov, S.G. Mueller, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023714 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Bickermann, B.M. Epelbaum, O. Filip, P. Heimann, S. Nagata, A. Winnacker, Phys. Status Sol. C 7(7), 21 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Stampfl, C.G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 65, 155212 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    V.S. Vainer, V.I. Veinger, V.A. Il’in, V.F. Tsvetkov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 2011 (1980)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    V.S. Vainer, V.A. Il’in, Sov. Phys. Solid State 23, 2126 (1981)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    N.M. Pavlov, M.I. Iglitsyn, M.G. Kosaganova, V.N. Solomatin, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 9, 845 (1976)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    N.G. Romanov, V.A. Vetrov, P.G. Baranov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 20, 96 (1986)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Jaccard, Y. Ruedin, M. Aegerter, P.A. Schnegg, Phys. Status Sol. B 50, 187 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor A. Soltamov
    • 1
  • Ivan V. Ilyin
    • 1
  • Alexandra A. Soltamova
    • 1
  • Daniel O. Tolmachev
    • 1
  • Nikolai G. Romanov
    • 1
  • Alexandr S. Gurin
    • 1
  • Vladimir A. Khramtsov
    • 1
  • Eugene N. Mokhov
    • 1
  • Yurii N. Makarov
    • 2
  • Georgy V. Mamin
    • 3
  • Sergei B. Orlinskii
    • 3
  • Pavel G. Baranov
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Ioffe Physical-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.N-Crystals GroupSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Federal Center of Shared Facilities of Kazan State UniversityKazanRussia
  4. 4.St. Petersburg State Polytechnical UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations