Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 113, Issue 6, pp 821–845 | Cite as

Metamorphic P-T conditions and variation of REE between two garnet generations from granulites in the Sør-Rondane mountains, East Antarctica

  • Sotaro BabaEmail author
  • Yasuhito Osanai
  • Tatsuro Adachi
  • Nobuhiko Nakano
  • Tomokazu Hokada
  • Tsuyoshi Toyoshima
Original Paper


In this paper, we describe the metamorphic conditions of Fe-rich granulite and variations in rare earth elements (REE) between peak garnet porphyroblasts and secondary garnet coronae. The Fe-rich granulites were collected from Vesthaugen, Sør-Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica, and consist mainly of cordierite, garnet, spinel, perthite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and orthopyroxene or sillimanite. Temperatures estimated from perthitc–mesoperthitic feldspar compositions, experimentally calibrated geothermobarometers and the modeling of P-T pseudosections suggest that the rocks experienced peak ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic conditions of 900–950 °C and 5.0 ± 0.5 kbar. Spinel contains quartz inclusions that also provide evidence for UHT metamorphism. Evidence of partial melting is characterized by the presence of leucocratic bands. The second generation of garnet occurs as coronae around spinel, formed during isobaric cooling following the peak conditions of UHT metamorphism. Garnet coronae and garnet porphyroblasts have distinct trace element patterns. Textural evidence and REE geochemistry suggest that the development of garnet coronae was controlled by (1) the REE composition of reactant phases and melt and/or (2) the crystallization of HREE-rich accessory phases (e.g., zircon and monazite) during secondary garnet growth.


Garnet textures Garnet rare-earth element Spinel–quartz assemblage Feldspar solvus Ultrahigh-temperature meyamorphism Sør-Rondane Mountains Antarctica 



This work was partly supported by the National Institute of Polar Research [General Collaboration Projects 25–17] and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) [15 K05346 to S. B.]. We would like to thank the members of 48th and 49th Japan Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE), and the crew of the icebreaker SHIRASE. We also thank A. Hubert, G. Johnson-Amin, and members of the Belgian Antarctic Research Station (2007–2008) for supporting our fieldwork. We acknowledge K. Shiraishi, Y. Motoyoshi, Y. Hiroi, H. Ishizuka, T. Kawasaki, M. Owada. K. Das and E.S. Grew for valuable discussions and comments. Constructive comments by Shah Wali Faryad, Leo Kriegsman, Fawna Korhonen, Gary Stevens, Geoffrey Grantham and an anonymous reviewer improved this manuscript and are gratefully acknowledged. We thank Shah Wali Faryad and M.A.T.M. Broekmans for editorial handling.

Supplementary material

710_2019_680_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (46 kb)
Table S1 (XLSX 46 kb)
710_2019_680_Fig13_ESM.png (29 kb)
Fig. S1

Compositional variations of spinel (hercynite) in Fe–Mg–Zn ternary diagrams. Spinel inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts have higher XMg than in other textural settings. Spinel inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts in sample T01H have high ZnO contents. Grt1=garnet porphyroblast, Grt2=garnet corona, H=sample T01H, G=sample T01G, not ident= grains not texturally identified, ar Sil= around sillimanite (PNG 28 kb)

710_2019_680_MOESM2_ESM.eps (10.3 mb)
High resolution image (EPS 10502 kb)
710_2019_680_Fig14_ESM.png (27 kb)
Fig. S2

Compositional variations of biotite in terms of (a) Ti (apfu 22 oxygens) vs XMg , (b) Cl vs XMg and (c) F vs XMg. Biotite inclusions within garnet have higher XMg and TiO2 than those in other textural settings. Secondary biotite in T01D has a high Cl content compered to other biotite. Bt2=secondary biotite, symp=symplectite, L. grain=large grain, inc. Grt=inclusion in garnet, inc. Opx=inclusion in orthopyroxene (PNG 27 kb)

710_2019_680_MOESM3_ESM.eps (11 mb)
High resolution image (EPS 11309 kb)
710_2019_680_Fig15_ESM.png (711 kb)
Fig. S3

T–XH2O pseudosections modeled for T01D and T01G, showing phase assemblage fields. Ovals mark stability fields of the inferred peak assemblages of Grt–melt–Opx–Crd–feldspar–Ilm–Spl–Qz for T01D and Grt–melt–Crd–Pl–Kfs–Ilm–Spl–Sill–Qz for T01G. These assemblages appear at H2O contents below 0.4 wt%. We assumed a H2O contents of 0.3 wt% and 0.2 wt% for T01D and T01G respectively (PNG 711 kb)

710_2019_680_MOESM4_ESM.eps (6.1 mb)
High resolution image (EPS 6266 kb)


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural EnvironmentUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Social and Cultural StudiesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  3. 3.National Institute of Polar ResearchTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Polar ScienceThe Graduate University for Advanced StudiesTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

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