Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 112, Supplement 1, pp 101–114 | Cite as

Super-reducing conditions in ancient and modern volcanic systems: sources and behaviour of carbon-rich fluids in the lithospheric mantle

  • William L. GriffinEmail author
  • Jin-Xiang Huang
  • Emilie Thomassot
  • Sarah E. M. Gain
  • Vered Toledo
  • Suzanne Y. O’Reilly
Original Paper


Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) is a key parameter of Earth’s mantle, because it controls the speciation of the fluids migrating at depth; a major question is whether the sublithospheric mantle is metal-saturated, keeping ƒO2 near the Iron-Wustite (IW) buffer reaction. Cretaceous basaltic pyroclastic rocks on Mt. Carmel, Israel erupted in an intraplate environment with a thin, hot lithosphere. They contain abundant aggregates of hopper-shaped crystals of Ti-rich corundum, which have trapped melts with phenocryst assemblages (Ti2O3, SiC, TiC, silicides, native V) requiring extremely low ƒO2. These assemblages are interpreted to reflect interaction between basaltic melts and mantle-derived fluids dominated by CH4 + H2. Similar highly reduced assemblages are found associated with volcanism in a range of tectonic situations including subduction zones, major continental collisions, intraplate settings, craton margins and the cratons sampled by kimberlites. This distribution, and the worldwide similarity of δ13C in mantle-derived SiC and associated diamonds, suggest a widespread process, involving similar sources and independent of tectonic setting. We suggest that the common factor is the ascent of abiotic (CH4 + H2) fluids from the sublithospheric mantle; this would imply that much of the mantle is metal-saturated, consistent with observations of metallic inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds (e.g. Smith et al. 2016). Such fluids, perhaps carried in rapidly ascending deep-seated magmas, could penetrate high up into a depleted cratonic root, establishing the observed trend of decreasing ƒO2 with depth (e.g. Yaxley et al. in Lithos 140:142–151, 2012). However, repeated metasomatism (associated with the intrusion of silicate melts) will raise the FeO content near the base of the craton over time, developing a carapace of oxidizing material that would prevent the rise of CH4-rich fluids into higher levels of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Oxidation of these fluids would release CO2 and H2O to drive metasomatism and low-degree melting both in the carapace and higher in the SCLM. This model can explain the genesis of cratonic diamonds from both reduced and oxidized fluids, the existence of SiC as inclusions in diamonds, and the abundance of SiC in some kimberlites. It should encourage further study of the fine fractions of heavy-mineral concentrates from all types of explosive volcanism.


Mantle redox Moissanite (SiC) Subcontinental lithospheric mantle Mantle metasomatism Abiotic methane 



We thank Paul Asimov, Dorrit Jacob, Oded Navon and Zsanett Pinter for helpful discussions. Constructive comments from two anonymous reviewers and handling editor Graham Pearson helped to improve the manuscript. This study used instrumentation funded by Australian Research Council Large Infrastructure and Equipment Fund and Department of Education Science and Technology Systemic Infrastructure Grants, Macquarie University and industry. This is contribution 1160 from the ARC–CCFS ( and 1224 from the GEMOC Key Centre (


  1. Apter D (2014) High pressure indicator minerals from the Rakefet Magmatic Complex (RMC), Mt. Carmel, Israel. In: Proceedings of the GSSA Kimberley Diamond Symposium, Extended AbstractGoogle Scholar
  2. Bali E, Audetat A, Keppler H (2014) Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth’s mantle. Nature 495:220–223Google Scholar
  3. Ballhaus C (1993) Redox states of lithospheric and asthenopheric upper mantle. Contrib Mineral Petrol 114:331–348Google Scholar
  4. Begg G, Griffin WL, Natapov LM, O’Reilly SY, Grand S, O’Neill CJ, Poudjom Djomani Y, Swain CJ, Deen T, Hronsky J, Bowden P (2009) The lithospheric architecture of Africa: seismic tomography, mantle petrology and tectonic evolution. Geosphere 5:23–50Google Scholar
  5. Brovarone AV, Martinez I, Elmaleh A, Compagnoni R, Chaduteau C, Ferraris C, Esteve I (2017) Massive production of abiotic methane during subduction evidenced in metamorphosed ophicarbonates from the Italian Alps. Nat Commun 8:14314Google Scholar
  6. Cartigny P, Palot M, Thomassot E, Harris JW (2014) A stable isotope perspective on the formation of diamonds and its link to mantle chemical geodynamics and oxidation states. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sc Lett 42:699–732Google Scholar
  7. Chinn IL, Perritt, SH, Stiefenhofer J, Stern RA (2017) Stable isotope data and FTIR analyses of diamonds from Orapa Mine: a clear subduction signature. 11th Internat Kimb Conf Ext Abst 4450Google Scholar
  8. Dobrzhinetskaya LF, Wirth R, Yang YJ, Green HW, Hutcheon ID, Weber PK, Grew ES (2014) Qingsongite, natural cubic boron nitride: the first boron mineral from the Earth’s mantle. Am Mineral 99:764–772Google Scholar
  9. Douglas PMJ, et al. (2017). "Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer." Organic Geochemistry 113: 262–282Google Scholar
  10. Duncan MS, Dasgupta R (2017) Rise of Earth’s atmospheric oxygen controlled by efficient subduction of organic carbon. Nat Geosci 10:387–392Google Scholar
  11. Esperanca S, Garfunkel Z (1986) Ultramafic xenoliths from the Mt. Carmel area (Karem Maharal volcano), Israel. Lithos 19:43–49Google Scholar
  12. Etiope G, Sherwood Lollar B (2013) Abiotic methane on Earth. Rev Geophys 51(2):276–299Google Scholar
  13. Frost DJ, McCammon CA (2008) The redox state of Earth's mantle. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sc Lett 36:389–420Google Scholar
  14. Frost DJ, Liebske C, Langenhorst F, McCammon CA, Trønnes R, Rubie DC (2004) Experimental evidence for the existence of iron-rich metal in the Earth’s lower mantle. Nature 428:409–411Google Scholar
  15. Galvez ME, Beyssac O, Martinez I, Benzerara K, Chaduteau C, Malvoisin B, Malavieille J (2013) Graphite formation by carbonate reduction during subduction. Nat Geosci 6:473–477Google Scholar
  16. Gaul OF, Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY, Pearson NJ (2000) Mapping olivine composition in the lithospheric mantle. Earth Planet Sc Lett 182:223–235Google Scholar
  17. Goldsmith JR (1980) The melting and breakdown reactions ofl anorthite at high pressures and temperatures. Am Mineral 65:272–284Google Scholar
  18. Golovko AV, Kaminsky FV (2010) The shoshoite-absarokite-picrite Karashoho pipe, Uzbekistan: an unusual diamond deposit in an atypical tectonic environment. Econ Geol 105:825–840Google Scholar
  19. Grew ES (2017) Boron: from cosmic scarcity to 300 minerals. Elements 13:225–229Google Scholar
  20. Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY (2007) Cratonic lithospheric mantle: is anything subducted? Episodes 30:43–53Google Scholar
  21. Griffin WL, Kaminsky FV, Ryan CG, O'Reilly SY, Win TT, Ilupin IP (1996) Thermal state and composition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Daldyn kimberlite field, Yakutia. Tectonophysics 262:19–33Google Scholar
  22. Griffin WL, Doyle BJ, Ryan CG, Pearson NJ, O'Reilly SY, Davies RM, Kivi K, van Achterbergh E, Natapov LM (1999a) Layered Mantle Lithosphere in the Lac de Gras Area, Slave Craton: Composition, Structure and Origin. J Petrol 40:705–727Google Scholar
  23. Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY, Ryan CG (1999b) The composition and origin of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. In: Fei Y, Bertka CM, Mysen BO (eds) Mantle Petrology: field observations and high-pressure experimentation: A tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd. Geochem Soc Spec Publ, vol 6. The Geochemical Society, Houston, pp 13–45Google Scholar
  24. Griffin WL, Ryan CG, Kaminsky FV, O'Reilly SY, Natapov LM, Win TT, Kinny PD, Ilupin IP (1999c) The Siberian lithosphere traverse: mantle terranes and the assembly of the Siberian Craton. Tectonophysics 310:1–35Google Scholar
  25. Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY, Natapov LM, Ryan CG (2003) The evolution of lithospheric mantle beneath the Kalahari Craton and its margins. Lithos 71:215–241Google Scholar
  26. Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY, Doyle BJ, Pearson NJ, Coopersmith H, Kivi K, Malkovets V, Pokhilenko NV (2004) Lithosphere mapping beneath the North American plate. Lithos 77:873–902Google Scholar
  27. Griffin WL, Begg GK, O'Reilly SY (2013) Continental-root control on the genesis of magmatic ore deposits. Nat Geosci 6:905–910Google Scholar
  28. Griffin WL, Gain SEM, Adams DT, Huang J-X, Saunders M, Toledo V, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY (2016a) First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mt. Carmel, Israel. Geology 44:815–818Google Scholar
  29. Griffin WL, Afonso JC, Belousova EA, Gain SEM, Gong X-H, González-Jiménez JM, Howell D, Huang J-X, McGowan NM, Pearson NJ, Satsukawa T, Shi R, Williams P, Xiong Q, Yang J-S, Zhang M, O’Reilly SY (2016b) Mantle Recycling: transition-zone metamorphism of Tibetan ophiolitic peridotites and its tectonic implications. J Petrol 57:655–684Google Scholar
  30. Howell D, Griffin WL, Gain SEM, Stern RA, Huang J-X, Yang J, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY (2015) Diamonds in ophiolites: contamination or a new diamond growth environment? Earth Planet Sc Lett 430:284–295Google Scholar
  31. Hutchison MT (1997) Constitution of the deep transition zone and lower mantle shown by diamonds and their inclusions. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 660 pp and CDROMGoogle Scholar
  32. Hutchison, M. T., Cartigny, P. and Harris, J.W. (1999). Carbon and nitrogen composition and cathodoluminescence characteristics of transition zone and lower mantle diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil. In: Gurney J.J. et al. (eds) Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite COnference, Volume I. Cape Town: 372-382Google Scholar
  33. Hutchison MT, Dale CW, Nowell GM, Laiginhas FA and Pearson DG (2012) Age constraints on ultra-deep mantle petrology shown by Juina diamonds. Ext Abs 10th Int Kimberlite Conf, Bangalore, India, 10IKC-184Google Scholar
  34. Ishimaru S, Arai S, Shukuno H (2009) Metal-saturated peridotite in the mantle wedge inferred from metal-bearing peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka. Earth Planet Sc Lett 284:352–360Google Scholar
  35. Janak M, Froitzheim N, Yoshida K, Sasinkova V, Nosko M, Kobayashi T, Hirajima T, Vrabec M (2015) Diamond in metasedimentary crustal rocks from Pohorje, Eastern Alps: a window to deep continental subduction. J Metam Geol 33:495–512Google Scholar
  36. Janney PE, Bell DR (2017) Hidden reservoirs in the continental lithosphere? Evidence from Hf-Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes in southern African kimberlite megacrysts. 11th Internat Kimb Conf Ext Abst 4630Google Scholar
  37. Jaques AL, Haggerty SE, Lucas H, Boxer GL (1986) Mineralogy and petrology of the Argyle (AK1) lamproite pipe, Western Australia. In: Ross J (ed) Kimberlites and related rocks, vol 1: their composition, occurrence, origin and emplacement. Geol Soc Australia Spec Publ 14: pp 170–188Google Scholar
  38. Jaques AL, Hall AE, Sheraton JW, Smith CB, Sun SS, Drew RM, Foudoulis C, Ellingsen K (1989) Composition of crystalline inclusions and C-isotopic composition of Argyle and Ellendale diamonds. In: Ross J (ed) Kimberlites and Related Rocks, vol2: their mantle/crust setting, diamonds and diamond exploration. Geol Soc Australia Spec Pub 14, pp 966–989Google Scholar
  39. Jablon BM, Navon O (2016). "Most diamonds were created equal." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 443:41–47Google Scholar
  40. Kadik A (1997) Evolution of Earth’s redox state during upwelling of carbon-bearing mantle. Phys Earth Planet Inter 100(1–4):157–166Google Scholar
  41. Kaminchik J, Segev A, Katzir Y (2014) The origin of intraplate alkaline mafic magmatism in continental shelves: lavas and xenoliths from the upper Cretaceous volcanos of Mt. Carmel. Geological Survey of Israel GSI/19/2014: 44 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaminsky FV (2012) Mineralogy of the lower mantle: a review of “super deep” mineral inclusions in diamond. Earth Sci Rev 110:127–147Google Scholar
  43. Kaminsky FV (2017) The Earth’s lower mantle: composition and structure. Springer Geology 331 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaminsky FV, Wirth RA (2011) Iron carbide inclusions in lower mantle diamond from Juina, Brazil. Can Mineral 49:555–572Google Scholar
  45. Kaminsky FV, Zakharchenko OD, Davies R, Griffin WL, Khachatryan-Blinova GK, Shiryaev AA (2001) Superdeep diamonds from the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140:734–753Google Scholar
  46. Karpov GA, Silaev VI, Anikin LP, Rakin VI, Vasil’ev EA, Filatov SK, Petrovskii VA, Flerov GB (2014) Diamonds and accessory mineral in products of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik fissure eruption. J Volcanol Seismol 8:323–339Google Scholar
  47. Leung IS (1990) Silicon carbide cluster entrapped in a diamond from Fuxian, China. Am Mineral 75:1110–1119Google Scholar
  48. Li Y (2016) Immiscible S-H-O fluids formed at subduction zone conditions. Geochemical Perspectives Letters 3:12–21Google Scholar
  49. Lobanov SS, Chen P-N, Chen X-J, Zha C-S, Litasov KD, Mao H-K, Goncharov AF (2013) Carbon corecipitation from heavy hydrocarbon fluid in deep planetary interiors. Nature Commun 4:2446Google Scholar
  50. Lu Q, Shi N-C, Liu H-F, Li G-W, Tang Z-D, Xiao P (2011) TiC inclusion first found in diamond from Fuxian, Liaoning. China. Geol Sci Tech Info 30:1–5Google Scholar
  51. Luth RW, Stachel T (2014) The buffering capacity of lithospheric mantle: implications for diamond formation. Contrib Mineral Petr 168:1083Google Scholar
  52. Marshintsev VK (1990) The nature of silicon carbide in kimberlite rocks of Yakutia. Mineral Zh 12:17–26Google Scholar
  53. Matveev S, Ballhaus C, Fricke K, Trunckenbrodt J, Ziegenbein D (1997) CHO volatiles under upper mantle conditions. I. Experimental results. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:3081–3088Google Scholar
  54. McGowan NM, Griffin WL, González-Jiménez JM, Belousova E, Afonso JC, Shi R, McCammon CA, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY (2015) Tibetan chromitites: excavating the slab graveyard. Geology 43:179–182Google Scholar
  55. Mittlefehldt DW (1986) Petrology of high pressure clinopyroxenite series xenoliths, Mount Carmel, Israel. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:245–252Google Scholar
  56. Moe KS, Yang J-S, Johnson P, Xu X, Wang W (2017) Spectroscopic analysis of microdiamonds in ophiolitic chromitite and peridotite. Lithosphere-US 10:133–141Google Scholar
  57. Otter M, Gurney J (1989) Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sloan diatremes, Colorado-Wyoming State Line kimberlite district, North America. Kimberlites and Related Rocks 2:1042–1053Google Scholar
  58. O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL, Segelstad TV (1990) The nature and role of fluids in the upper mantle: evidence in xenoliths from Victoria, Australia. In: Herbert HK, Ho EH (eds) Stable isotopes and fluid processes in mineralisation. Geol Dept UWA Univ Ext UWA Publ no 23, pp 315–323Google Scholar
  59. Ottonello G, Attene M, Ameglio a BD, Vetuschi Zuccolini M, Natali M (2013) Thermodynamic investigation of the CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 system at high P and T through polymer chemistry and convex-hull techniques. Chem Geol 346:81–92Google Scholar
  60. Palot M, Pearson DG, Stachel T, Stern RA, Le Pioufle A, Gurney JJ, Harris JW (2017) The transition zone as a host for recycled volatiles: evidence from nitrogen and carbon isotopes in ultra-deep diamonds from monastery and Jagersfontein (South Africa). Chem Geol 466:733–749Google Scholar
  61. Petts DC, Chacko T, Stachel T, Stern RA, Heaman LM (2015) A nitrogen isotope fractionation factor between diamond and its parental fluid derived from detailed SIMS analysis of a gem diamond and theoretical calculations. Chem Geol 410:188–200Google Scholar
  62. Porcelli DR, O’Nions RK, O’Reilly SY (1986) Helium and strontium isotopes in ultramafic xenoliths. Chem Geol 54:237–249Google Scholar
  63. Rohrbach A, Ballhaus C, Golla-Schindler U, Ulmer P, Kamenetsky VS, Kuzmin DV (2007) Metal saturation in the upper mantle. Nature 449:456–458Google Scholar
  64. Sass E (1980) Late Cretaceous volcanism in Mount Carmel, Israel. Isr J Earth Sci 29:8–24Google Scholar
  65. Satsukawa T, Griffin WL, Piazolo S, O’Reilly SY (2015) Messengers from the deep: fossil wadsleyite-chromite microstructures from the mantle Transition Zone. Sci Rep–UK 5:16484Google Scholar
  66. Scott HP, Hemley RJ, Mao H (2004) Generation of methane in the Earth’s mantle: in situ high pressure–temperature measurements of carbonate reduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14023–14026Google Scholar
  67. Segev A (2009) 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar geochronology of Berriasian-Hauterivian and Cenomanian tectonomagmatic events in northern Israel: implications for regional stratigraphy. Cret Res 30:810–828Google Scholar
  68. Segev A, Weissbrod T, Lang B (2005) 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Aptian-Albian igneous activity in the Negev, Israel: consequences of the Levant-Nubia plume activity. Cret Res 26:633–656Google Scholar
  69. Selway K (2014) On the causes of electrical conductivity anomalies in tectonically stable lithosphere. Surv Geophys 35:219–257Google Scholar
  70. Selway K, Heinson G, Hand M (2006) Electrical evidence of continental accretion: steeply-dipping crustal-scale conductivity contrast. Geophys Res Lett 33:L06305Google Scholar
  71. Shi CY, Zhang L, Yang W, Liu Y, Wang J, Meng Y, Andrews JC, Mao WL (2013) Formation of an interconnected network of iron melt at Earth’s lower mantle conditions. Nat Geosci 6:971–975Google Scholar
  72. Shiryaev AA, Griffin WL, Stoyanov E (2011) Moissanite (SiC) from kimberlites: polytypes, trace elements, inclusions and speculations on origin. Lithos 122:152–164Google Scholar
  73. Smit KV, Shirey SB, Stern RA, Steele A, Wang W (2016) Diamond growth from C–H–N–O fluids in the lithosphere: evidence from CH4 micro-inclusions and δ13C–δ15N–N content in Zimbabwe mixed-habit diamonds. Lithos 265:68–81Google Scholar
  74. Smith EM, Wang W (2017) Type IIb diamonds originate from the sublithospheric mantle. 11th Internat Kimb Conf Ext Abst 4502Google Scholar
  75. Smith EM, Shirey SB, Nestola F, Bullock ES, Wang J, Richardson SH, Wang W (2016) Origin of big gem diamonds from metallic liquid in deep earth mantle. Science 354:1403–1405Google Scholar
  76. Sokol AG, Tomilenko AA, Bip’bak T, Palyanova GA, Sokol A, Palynov YN (2017) Carbon and nitrogen speciation in N-poor C-O-H-N fluids at 6.3 GPa and 1100–1400 °C. Sci Rep–UK 7:706Google Scholar
  77. Song S, Su L, Niu Y, Lai Y, Zhang L (2009) CH4 inclusions in orogenic harzburgite: evidence for reduced slab fluids and implication for redox melting in mantle wedge. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:1737–1754Google Scholar
  78. Speyer RF (1996) Three-dimensional rendering and phase analysis of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system. J Phase Equilib 17:186–195Google Scholar
  79. Stachel T, Harris JW (2009). "Formation of diamond in the Earth’s mantle." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 21(36): 364206Google Scholar
  80. Stachel T, Luth RW (2015) Diamond formation – where, when and how? Lithos 220-223:200–220Google Scholar
  81. Stachel T, Chako T, Luth RW (2017). "Carbon isotope fractionation during diamond growth in depleted peridotite: Counterintuitive insights from modelling water-maximum CHO fluids as multi-component systems." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 473(Supplement C): 44–51.Google Scholar
  82. Stagno V, Ojwang DO, McCammon CA, Frost DJ (2013) The oxidation state of the mantle and the extraction of carbon from Earth’s interior. Nature 493:84–88Google Scholar
  83. Stagno V, Frost DJ, McCammon CA, Mohseni H, Fei Y (2015) The oxygen fugacity at which graphite or diamond forms from carbonate-bearing melts in eclogitic rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 169:16Google Scholar
  84. Stagno V, McCammon CA, Cerantola V, Andreozzi GB, Caruso M, Arimoto T, Irifune T (2017) Do Fe-bearing minerals control the deep carbon cycle in the interior of the earth? Ext Abst Goldschmidt 2017Google Scholar
  85. Stamm N, Schmidt MW (2017) Asthenospheric kimberlites: volatile contents and bulk compositions at 7 Gpa. Earth Planet Sc Lett 474:309–321Google Scholar
  86. Stein M, Hofmann AW (1992) Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere? Earth Planet Sc Lett 114:193–209Google Scholar
  87. Sverjensky DA, Stagno V, Huang F (2017) Important role for organic carbon in subduction-zone fluids in the deep carbon cycle. Nat Geosci 7:909–913Google Scholar
  88. Tappe S, Smart K, Stern RA , Massuyeau M, de Wit M (2017) Evolution of kimberlite magmatism on the dynamic Earth. 11th Internat Kimb Conf Ext Abst 4542Google Scholar
  89. Tatarintsev VI, Sm S, Tsymbal SN (1987) First finding of titanium niride (osbornite) on the earth. Doklady NAUK USSR 549:1458–1461 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  90. Thomassot E, Cartigny P, Harris JW, Vijoen KS (2007) Methane-related diamond crystallization in the Earth's mantle: stable isotope evidences from a single diamond-bearing xenolith. Earth Planet Sc Lett 257:362–371Google Scholar
  91. Tomilenko AA, Chepurov AI, Pal’yanov YN, Pokhilenko LN, Shebanin AP (1997) Volatile components in the upper mantle (based on data on fluid inclusion studies). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russia Geology and Geophysics) 38:276–285Google Scholar
  92. Trumbull RB, Yang J-S, Robinson PT, Di Pierro S, Vennemann T, Wiedenbeck M (2009) The carbon isotope composition of natural SiC (moissanite) from the Earth's mantle: new discoveries from ophiolites. Lithos 113:612–620Google Scholar
  93. Ulmer GC, Grandstaff DE, Woermann E, Gobbels M, Schonitz M, Woodland AB (1998) The redox stability of moissanite (SiC) compared with metal-metal oxide buffers at 1773 K and at pessures up to 90 kbar. Neues Jb Mineral Abh 172:279–307Google Scholar
  94. Weitzer F, Schuster JC, Naka M, Stein F, Palm M (2008) On the reaction scheme and liquidus surface in the ternary system Fe-Si-Ti. Intermetallics 16:273–282Google Scholar
  95. Wood BJ, Bryndzia LT, Johnson KE (1990) Mantle oxidation state and its relationship to tectonic environment and fluid speciation. Science 248:337–345Google Scholar
  96. Woodhead J, Hergt J, Giuliani A, Phillips D, Maas R (2017) Tracking continental-scale modification of the Earth’s mantle using zircon megacrysts. Geochemical Perspective Letters 4:1–6Google Scholar
  97. Woodland AB, Koch M (2003) Variation in oxygen fugacity with depth in the uppermantle beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa. Earth Planet Sc Lett 214:295–310Google Scholar
  98. Xiong F, Yang J-S, Dilek Y, Xu x ZZ (2017a) Origin and significance of diamonds and other exotic minerals in the Dingqing ophiolite peridotites, eastern Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, Tibet. Lithosphere 10:142–155Google Scholar
  99. Xiong Q, Griffin WL, Huang J-X, Gain SEM, Toledo V, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY (2017b) Super-reduced mineral assemblages in “ophiolitic” chromitites and peridotites: the view from Mt. Carmel. Eur J Mineral 29:557–570Google Scholar
  100. Xu XZ, Yang JS, Chen SY, Fang QS, Bai WJ, Ba DZ (2009) Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite orebody Cr-11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet. J Earth Sci 20:284–302Google Scholar
  101. Yang J-S, Robinson PT, Dilek Y (2014) Diamonds in ophiolites. Elements 10:127–130Google Scholar
  102. Yang J-S, Meng F, Xu X-Z, Robinson PT, Dilek Y, Makeyev AB, Wirth R, Wiedenbeck M, Cliff J (2015) Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals. Gondwana Res 27:459–485Google Scholar
  103. Yaxley GM, Berry AJ, Kamenetsky VS, Woodland AB, Golovin AV (2012) An oxygen fugacity profile through the Siberian Craton — Fe K-edge XANES determinations of Fe3+/ΣFe in garnets in peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya East kimberlite. Lithos 140:142–151Google Scholar
  104. Yaxley GM, Berry AJ, Rosenthal A, Woodland AB, Paterson D (2017) Redox preconditioning deep cratonic lithosphere for kimberlite genesis – evidence from the central Slave Craton. Sci Rep–UK 7:30Google Scholar
  105. Zhang C, Duan Z (2009) A model for COH fluid in the Earth's mantle. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:2089–2102Google Scholar
  106. Zhang RY, Yang J-S, Ernst WG, Jahn B-M, Iizuka Y, Guo G-L (2016) Discovery of in situ super-reducing, ultrahigh-pressure phases in the Luobusa ophiolitic chromitites, Tibet: new insights into the deep upper mantle and mantle transition zone. Am Mineral 10:1285–1294Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • William L. Griffin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jin-Xiang Huang
    • 1
  • Emilie Thomassot
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sarah E. M. Gain
    • 1
  • Vered Toledo
    • 4
  • Suzanne Y. O’Reilly
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (ARC–CCFS) and ARC National Key Centre for Geochemical Evolution and Metallogeny of Continents (GEMOC), Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques-CNRSUniversité de LorraineNancyFrance
  3. 3.Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisParisFrance
  4. 4.Shefa Yamim (A.T.M.) Ltd.NetanyaIsrael

Personalised recommendations