Mineralogy of the epithermal precious and base metal deposit Banská Hodruša at the Rozália Mine (Slovakia)

  • Alexander Kubač
  • Martin Chovan
  • Peter Koděra
  • J. Richard Kyle
  • Peter Žitňan
  • Jaroslav Lexa
  • Rastislav Vojtko
Original Paper
  • 45 Downloads

Abstract

The Au-Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu epithermal deposit Banská Hodruša of intermediate-sulphidation type is located in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica stratovolcano on the inner side of the Carpathian arc in Slovakia. This deposit represents an unusual subhorizontal multi-stage vein system, related to processes of underground cauldron subsidence and exhumation of a subvolcanic granodiorite pluton. Veins are developed on a low-angle normal shear zone, possibly representing a detachment zone in andesitic wall rocks that formed during emplacement and exhumation of the granodiorite pluton. The deposit consists of two parts, separated by a thick sill of quartz-diorite porphyry. The eastern part is currently mined, and the western part has already been depleted. The Banská Hodruša mineralization was formed during four stages: (1) low-grade silicified breccia at subhorizontal structures at the base of the deposit; (2) stockwork of steep veins with rhodonite-rhodochrosite, quartz-sulphide-carbonate and quartz-gold assemblages; (3) thin quartz-gold veins with medium dip in tension cracks inside the shear zone and complementary detachment hosted quartz-base metals-gold veins; (4) Post-ore veins. Gold and electrum (920–730) occur as intergrowths with base metal sulphides or hosted in quartz and carbonates, accompanied by Au-Ag tellurides (hessite, petzite). Rare Te-polybasite and Cu-cervelleite result from re-equilibration of early Te-bearing minerals during cooling. Sulphide minerals include low Fe sphalerite (~ 1.25 wt%), galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. The wall rock alteration is represented mostly by adularia, illite, chlorite, quartz, calcite and pyrite. Precipitation of gold, Au-Ag tellurides, Mn-bearing minerals and adularia resulted from boiling of fluids due to hydraulic fracturing, as well as opening of dilatational structures within the shear zone.

Keywords

Gold Base metal Epithermal Alteration Computed tomography Low angle shear zone Rozália Mine Hodruša-Hámre Štiavnica stratovolcano 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are indebted to Juraj Majzlan for the constructive review and to journal editor Maarten A.T.M. Broekmans for the editorial handling. We thanks to the staff of the laboratories of electron probe micro-analyses: T. Mikuš, P. Konečný, I. Holický and V. Kollárová. Thanks are also extended to the P. Bačík for the P-XRD analyses. This study was supported by Slovenská Banská, Ltd., Slovak Research and Development Agency (contracts No. APVV-15-0083 and APVV-0033-07), and the Research Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic (contract No. VEGA 1/0560/15). Computed tomography was supported by the III Yager Professorship of the Geology Foundation of the Jackson School of Geosciences.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology of Mineral Deposits, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  4. 4.Slovenská Banská, Ltd.Hodruša-HámreSlovak Republic
  5. 5.Earth Science Institute of the Slovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovak Republic
  6. 6.Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovak Republic

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