Advertisement

Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 111, Issue 2, pp 237–252 | Cite as

Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim: insights from igneous rocks in the Kuluketage area, NW China

  • Yan Zhang
  • Xun WeiEmail author
  • Yi-Gang XuEmail author
  • Xiao-Ping Long
  • Xue-Fa Shi
  • Jian-Xin Zhao
  • Yue-Xing Feng
Original Paper

Abstract

The composition of lower crust of the Tarim Craton in NW China is essential to understand the petrogenesis of the ~290–275 Ma Tarim basalts and associated intermediate-felsic rocks. However, it remains poorly constrained because extremely sparse granulite terrains or granulite xenoliths have been found in the Tarim Craton. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are reported for the Neoarchean and Neoproterozoic igneous rocks widely distributed in the northern margin of the Tarim Craton. The Neoarchean granitic gneisses show fractionated REE (rare earth element) patterns [(La/Yb) N  = 12–58, YbN = 10.6–36] with pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. These features, together with negative εNdi (−0.7 to −3.2) suggest that they were derived from melting of mafic lower crust. The Neoproterozoic biotite granodiorites are strongly depleted in HREE with (La/Yb) N up to 55. They are characterized by high Sr (671–789 ppm) but very low Y (7.10–8.06 ppm) and Yb contents (0.47–0.58 ppm), showing typical features of adakitic rocks. The samples with different SiO2 contents display identical 87Sr/86Sri (0.7101–0.7103), εNdi (−14.1 to −15.7) and Pb isotopes (208Pb/204Pbi = 36.94–37.07). These features together with arc-like trace element patterns suggest that they were derived from melting of thickened lower crust. In comparison, the Neoproterozoic hornblende-biotite granodiorites have similar trace element compositions except for weaker depletion in HREE and have lower 87Sr/86Sri (0.7078) and initial Pb isotopes, and higher εNdi (−12.3 to −12.7). This suggests that they were formed by melting of old lower continental crust at a shallower depth than the biotite granodiorites. These rocks were derived from the lower crust, thus providing valuable information on the nature of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim. Combined with published data, the 87Sr/86Sri, εNdi, 206Pb/204Pbi and εHfi of the northern Tarim lower crust ranges from 0.7055 to 0.7103, from −12 to −17, from 16.20 to 16.65, and from −7 to −19, respectively, at ~785 Ma. These data also suggest vertical compositional heterogeneity of the northern Tarim lower crust.

Keywords

Tarim craton Lower crust Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions Adakitic rocks 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Qiang Ma for helpful discussions. Constructive reviews by two anonymous experts and journal editors Qiuli Li and L. Nasdala are gratefully acknowledged. This research was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (grant number 2011CB808906); National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 41576052, 41506068, 41322036); Aoshan Excellent Young Scientist Plan (2015ASTP-ES16) to Dr. Quan-Shu Yan; and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant number 2015 M580613). Analytical work at the Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory at the University of Queensland was supported by an ARC discovery grant (DP0986542).\.

Supplementary material

710_2016_470_MOESM1_ESM.eps (459 kb)
ESM 1 (EPS 458 kb)
710_2016_470_MOESM2_ESM.docx (37 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 36 kb)

References

  1. Atherton MP, Petford N (1993) Generation of sodium-rich magmas from newly underplated basaltic crust. Nature 362:144–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BGMRXUAR (Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) (1993) Regional geology of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1468 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Cao XF, XB L, Liu ST, Zhang P, Gao XA, Chen C, Mo YL (2011) LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Dapingliang Neoproterozoic granites at Kuluketage block, NW China. Precambrian Res 186:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castillo PR, Janney PE, Solidum RU (1999) Petrology and geochemistry of Camiguin Island, southern Philippines: insights to the source of adakites and other lavas in a complex arc setting. Contrib Mineral Petrol 134:33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chung SL, Liu DY, Ji JQ, Chu MF, Lee HY, Wen DJ, Lo CH, Lee TY, Qian Q, Zhang Q (2003) Adakites from continental collision zones: melting of thickened lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Geology 31:1021–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collerson KD, Kamber BS, Schoenberg R (2002) Applications of accurate, high-precision Pb isotope ratio measurement by multi-collector ICP-MS. Chem Geol 188:65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Defant MJ, Drummond MS (1990) Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature 347:662–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deniel C, Pin C (2001) Single-stage method for the simultaneous isolation of lead and strontium from silicate samples for isotopic measurements. Anal Chim Acta 426:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Depaolo DJ (1981) Trace element and isotopic effects of combined wallrock assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 53:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Downes H, Dupuy C, Leyreloup AF (1990) Crustal evolution of the Hercynian belt of Western Europe: evidence from lower-crustal granulitic xenoliths (French massif central. Chem Geol 83:209–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drummond MS, Defant MJ, Kepezhinskas PK (1996) Petrogenesis of slab-derived trondhjemite-tonalite-dacite/adakite magmas. Trans R Soc Edinb-. Earth Sci 87:205–215Google Scholar
  12. Eggins SM, Woodhead JD, Kinsley LPJ, Mortimer GE, Sylvester P, McCulloch MT, Hergt JM, Handler MR (1997) A simple method for the precise determination of ≥40 trace elements in geological samples by ICPMS using enriched isotope internal standardisation. Chem Geol 134:311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farmer GL (1992) Magmas as tracers of crustal composition: an isotopic approach. In: Fountain DM, Arculus R, Kay RW (eds) Continental lower crust. Elsevier, New York, pp 363–390Google Scholar
  14. Gao S, Luo TC, Zhang BR, Zhang HF, Han YW, Zhao ZD, Hu YK (1998) Chemical composition of the continental crust as revealed by studies in East China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:1959–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gao S, Rudnick RL, Yuan H-L, Liu X-M, Liu Y-S, W-L X, Ling W-L, Ayers J, Wang X-C, Wang Q-H (2004) Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton. Nature 432:892–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ge R, Zhu W, Wilde SA, Wu H, He J, Zheng B (2014) Archean magmatism and crustal evolution in the northern tarim craton: insights from zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotopes and geochemistryof ∼2.7 Ga orthogneiss and amphibolite in the Korla complex. Precambrian Res 252:145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo ZJ, Zhang ZC, Liu SW, Li HM (2003) U-Pb geochronological evidence for the early Precambrian complex of the tarim craton, NW China. Acta Petrol Sin 19:537542 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  18. He Z-Y, Zhang Z-M, Zong K-Q, Dong X (2013) Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the tarim craton: constrained by zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes of meta-igneous rocks from Korla and Dunhuang. J Asian Earth Sci 78:54–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu AQ, Jahn BM, Zhang GX, Chen YB, Zhang QF (2000) Crustal evolution and Phanerozoic crustal growth in northern Xinjiang: Nd isotopic evidence. Part I Isotopic characterization of basement rocks Tectonophysics 328:15–51Google Scholar
  20. Huang XL, YG X, Liu DY (2004) Geochronology, petrology and geochemistry of the granulite xenoliths from Nushan, East China: implication for a heterogeneous lower crust beneath the Sino-Korean craton. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:127–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jiang CY, Zhang PB, Lu DR, Bai KY, Wang YP, Tang SH, Wang JH, Yang C (2004) Petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Kalpin basalts and their Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. Geol Rev 50:492–500 in Chinese with English abstractGoogle Scholar
  22. Jiang N, Guo JH, Chang GH (2013) Nature and evolution of the lower crust in the eastern North China craton: a review. Earth-Sci Rev 122:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson K, Barnes CG, Miller CA (1997) Petrology, geochemistry, and genesis of high-Al tonalite and trondhjemites of the cornucopia stock, Blue Mountains, northeastern Oregon. J Petrol 38:1585–1611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kay SM, Ramos VA, Marquez M (1993) Evidence in Cerro pampa volcanic rocks for slab-melting prior to ridge-trench collision in southern South America. J Geol 101:703–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koreshkova MY, Downes H, Levsky LK, Vladykin NV (2011) Petrology and geochemistry of granulite xenoliths from Udachnaya and Komsomolskaya kimberlite pipes, Siberia. J Petrol 52:1857–1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li YQ, Li ZL, Sun YL, Santosh M, Langmuir CH, Chen HL, Yang SF, Chen ZX, Yu X (2012) Platinum-group elements and geochemical characteristics of the Permian continental flood basalts in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China: implications for the evolution of the tarim large Igneous Province. Chem Geol 328:278–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu YS, Gao S, Yuan HL, Zhou L, Liu XM, Wang XC, Hu ZC, Wang LS (2004) U-Pb zircon ages and Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopes of lower crustal xenoliths from North China craton: insights on evolution of lower continental crust. Chem Geol 211:87–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Long XP, Yuan C, Sun M, Zhao GC, Xiao WJ, Wang YJ, Yang YH, Hu AQ (2010) Archean crustal evolution of the northern tarim craton, NW China: zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints. Precambrian Res 180:272–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Long XP, Yuan C, Sun M, Kröner A, Zhao GC, Wilde S, Hu AQ (2011) Reworking of the tarim craton by underplating of mantle plume-derived magmas: evidence from Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Kuluketage area, NW China. Precambrian Res 187:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lu SN, Li HK, Zhang CL, Niu GH (2008a) Geological and geochronological evidence for the Precambrian evolution of the tarim craton and surrounding continental fragments. Precambrian Res 160:94–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lu SN, Zhao GC, Wang HC, Hao GJ (2008b) Precambrian metamorphic basement and sedimentary cover of the North China craton: a review. Precambrian Res 160:77–93Google Scholar
  32. Ma Q, Zheng J-P, Xu Y-G, Griffin WL, Zhang R-S (2015) Are continental “adakites” derived from thickened or foundered lower crust? Earth Planet Sci Lett 419:125–133Google Scholar
  33. Macpherson CG, Dreher ST, Thirlwall MF (2006) Adakites without slab melting: high pressure differentiation of island arc magma, Mindanao, the Philippines. Earth Planet Sci Lett 243:581–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin H, Smithies RH, Rapp R, Moyen JF, Champion D (2005) An overview of adakite, tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG), and sanukitoid: relationships and some implications for crustal evolution. Lithos 79:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McDonough WF, Sun SS (1995) The composition of the earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Míková J, Denková P (2007) Modified chromatographic separation scheme for Sr and Nd isotope analysis in geological silicate samples. J Geosci 52:221–226Google Scholar
  37. Moyen J-F, Martin H (2012) Forty years of TTG research. Lithos 148:312–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Petford N, Atherton M (1996) Na-rich partial melts from newly underplated basaltic crust: the cordillera Blanca batholith, Peru. J Petrol 37:1491–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pin C, Zalduegui JS (1997) Sequential separation of light rare-earth elements, thorium and uranium by miniaturized extraction chromatography: application to isotopic analyses of silicate rocks. Anal Chim Acta 339:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Plank T, Langmuir CH (1998) The chemical composition of subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and mantle. Chem Geol 145:325–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Prouteau G, Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Maury RC (2001) Evidence for mantle metasomatism by hydrous silicic melts derived from subducted oceanic crust. Nature 410:197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rapp RP, Watson EB (1995) Dehydration melting of Metabasalt at 8-32 Kbar: implications for continental growth and crust-mantle recycling. J Petrol 36:891–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rapp RP, Shimizu N, Norman MD, Applegate GS (1999) Reaction between slab-derived melts and peridotite in the mantle wedge: experimental constraints at 3.8 GPa. Chem Geol 160:335–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rollinson HR (1993) Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman Singapore Publishers (Pte) Ltd, Singapore, pp 1–352Google Scholar
  45. Rooney T, Franceschi P, Hall C (2011) Water-saturated magmas in the Panama Canal region: a precursor to adakite-like magma generation? Contrib Mineral Petrol 161:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rudnick RL (1990) Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of lower crustal xenoliths from North Queensland, Australia: implications for Nd model ages and crustal growth processes. Chem Geol 83:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sajona FG, Maury RC, Pubellier M, Leterrier J, Bellon H, Cotten J (2000) Magmatic source enrichment by slab-derived melts in a young post-collision setting, central Mindanao (Philippines. Lithos 54:173–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tanaka T, Togashi S, Kamioka H, Amakawa H, Kagami H, Hamamoto T, Yuhara M, Orihashi Y, Yoneda S, Shimizu H, Kunimaru T, Takahashi K, Yanagi T, Nakano T, Fujimaki H, Shinjo R, Asahara Y, Tanimizu M, Dragusanu C (2000) JNdi-1: a neodymium isotopic reference in consistency with LaJolla neodymium. Chem Geol 168:279–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tian W, Campbell IH, Allen CM, Guan P, Pan WQ, Chen MM, HJ Y, Zhu WP (2010) The tarim picrite-basalt-rhyolite suite, a Permian flood basalt from Northwest China with contrasting rhyolites produced by fractional crystallization and anatexis. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:407–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vervoort JD, Patchett PJ, Blichert-Toft J, Albarede F (1999) Relationships between Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic systems in the global sedimentary system. Earth Planet Sci Lett 168:79–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang Q, McDermott F, Xu JF, Bellon H, Zhu YT (2005) Cenozoic K-rich adakitic volcanic rocks in the Hohxil area, northern Tibet: lower-crustal melting in an intracontinental setting. Geology 33:465–468Google Scholar
  52. Wang Q, Xu JF, Jian P, Bao ZW, Zhao ZH, Li CF, Xiong XL, Ma JL (2006a) Petrogenesis of adakitic porphyries in an extensional tectonic setting, Dexing, South China: implications for the genesis of porphyry copper mineralization. J Petrol 47:119–144Google Scholar
  53. Wang XC, Liu YS, Liu XM (2006b) Mesozoic adakites in the Lingqiu Basin of the central North China craton: partial melting of underplated basaltic lower crust. Geochem J 40:447–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wei X, Xu YG (2011) Petrogenesis of Xiaohaizi syenite complex from Bachu area, tarim. Acta Petrol Sin 27:29843004 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  55. Wei X, Xu YG, Feng YX, Zhao JX (2014a) Plume-lithosphere interaction in the generation of the tarim large igneous province, NW China: geochronological and geochemical constraints. Am J Sci 314:314–356Google Scholar
  56. Wei X, Xu YG, Zhang CL, Zhao JX, Feng YX (2014b) Petrology and Sr-Nd isotopic disequilibrium of the Xiaohaizi intrusion, NW China: genesis of layered intrusions in the tarim large igneous province. J Petrol 55:2567–2598Google Scholar
  57. Wei X, Xu Y-G, Luo ZY, Zhao JX, Feng YX (2015) Composition of the Tarimmantle plume: constraints from clinopyroxene antecrysts in the early Permian Xiaohaizi dykes, NW China. Lithos 230:69–81Google Scholar
  58. Wei X, Xu Y-G, Ren Z-Y, Luo Z-Y (2016) Origin of high-an plagioclase in the early Permian (~280 Ma) Xiaohaizi wehrlite, Northwest China: insights from melt inclusions in clinopyroxene macrocrysts and zircon oxygen isotopes. Int Geol Rev 58:1005–1019Google Scholar
  59. XIGMR (Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources) (2007) Geological map of the Chinese Tianshan and adjacent regions. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, scale 1:1,000,000Google Scholar
  60. Xu B, Xiao S, Zou H, Chen Y, Li Z-X, Song B, Liu D, Zhou C, Yuan X (2009) SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age constraints on Neoproterozoic Quruqtagh diamictites in NW China. Precambrian Res 168:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Xu J-F, Shinjo R, Defant MJ, Wang Q, Rapp RP (2002) Origin of Mesozoic adakitic intrusive rocks in the Ningzhen area of East China: partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust? Geology 30(12):1111–1114Google Scholar
  62. Xu Y-G, Wei X, Luo Z-Y, Liu H-Q, Cao J (2014) The early Permian tarim large Igneous Province: main characteristics and a plume incubation model. Lithos 204:20–35Google Scholar
  63. Xu Z-Q, He BZ, Zhang C-L, Zhang J-X, Wang Z-M, Cai Z-H (2013) Tectonic framework and crustal evolution of the Precambrian basement of the tarim block in NW China: new geochronological evidence from deep drilling samples. Precambrian Res 235:150–162Google Scholar
  64. Yang SF, Li ZL, Chen HL, Xiao WJ, Yu X, Lin XB, Shi XG (2006) Discovery of a Permian quartz syenitic porphyritic dyke from the tarim basin and its tectonic implications. Acta Petrol Sin 22:14051412 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  65. Yang SF, Li ZL, Chen HL, Santosh M, Dong CW, Yu X (2007) Permian bimodal dyke of Tarim Basin, NW China: geochemical characteristics and tectonic implications. Gondwana Res 12:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yang SF, Chen HL, Li ZL, Li YQ, Yu X, Li DX, Meng LF (2013) Early Permian tarim large Igneous Province in Northwest China. Sci China Earth Sci 56:2015–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ye X-T, Zhang C-L, Santosh M, Zhang J, Fan X-K, Zhang J-J (2016) Growth and evolution of Precambrian continental crust in the southwestern tarim terrane: new evidence from the ca. 1.4 Ga A-type granites and Paleoproterozoic intrusive complex. Precambrian Res 275:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yu X, Yang SF, Chen HL, Chen ZQ, Li ZL, Batt GE, Li YQ (2011) Permian flood basalts from the Tarim Basin, Northwest China: SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics. Gondwana Res 20:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhang C-L, Zou H-B (2013) Permian A-type granites in tarim and western part of central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB): genetically related to a common Permian mantle plume? Lithos 172:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang C-L, Li Z-X, Li X-H, H-F Y, Ye H-M (2007a) An early Paleoproterozoic high-K intrusive complex in southwestern tarim block, NW China: age, geochemistry, and tectonic implications. Gondwana Res 12:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhang CL, Li XH, Li ZX, SN L, Ye HM, Li HM (2007b) Neoproterozoic ultramafic-mafic-carbonatite complex and granitoids in Quruqtagh of northeastern tarim block, western China: geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications. Precambrian Res 152:149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang C-L, Li X-H, Li Z-X, Ye H-M, Li C-N (2008) A permian layered intrusive complex in the western tarim block, northwestern China: product of a Ca. 275-Ma mantle plume? J Geol 116:269–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhang CL, Li ZX, Li XH, Ye HM (2009) Neoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms at the northern margin of the tarim block, NW China: age, geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. J Asian Earth Sci 35:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang CL, Xu YG, Li ZX, Wang HY, Ye HM (2010a) Diverse Permian magmatism in the tarim block, NW China: genetically linked to the Permian tarim mantle plume? Lithos 119:537–552Google Scholar
  75. Zhang YT, Liu JQ, Guo ZF (2010b) Permian basaltic rocks in the tarim basin, NW China: implications for plume-lithosphere interaction. Gondwana Res 18:596–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhang CL, Li HK, Santosh M, Li ZX, Zou HB, Wang HY, Ye HM (2012a) Precambrian evolution and cratonization of the tarim block, NW China: petrology, geochemistry, Nd-isotopes and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Archaean gabbro-TTG-potassic granite suite and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic belt. J Asian Earth Sci 47:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhang JX, Gong JH, SY Y (2012b) 1.85 Ga HP granulite-facies metamorphism inthe Dunhuang block of the tarim craton, NW China: evidence from U-Pb zircondating of mafic granulites. J Geol Soc Lond 169:511–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang JX, Gong JH, SY Y, Li HK, Hou KJ (2013) Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic multiple tectonothermal events in the western Alxa block,North China craton and their geological implication: evidence from zir-con U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition. Precambrian Res 235:36–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang C-L, Zou H-B, Santosh M, Ye X-T, Li H-K (2014) Is the Precambrian basement of the tarim craton in NW China composed of discrete terranes? Precambrian Res 254:226–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhao GC, Cawood PA (2012) Precambrian geology of China. Precambrian Res:222–223Google Scholar
  81. Zheng J, Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY, Zhang M, Liou JG, Pearson N (2006) Granulite xenoliths and their zircons, Tuoyun, NW China: insights into southwestern Tianshan lower crust. Precambrian Res 145:159–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhou MF, Zhao JH, Jiang CY, Gao JF, Wang W, Yang SH (2009) OIB-like, heterogeneous mantle sources of Permian basaltic magmatism in the western Tarim Basin, NW China: implications for a possible Permian large igneous province. Lithos 113:583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zindler A, Hart S (1986) Chemical geodynamics. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 14:493–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zong K, Liu Y, Zhang Z, He Z, Hu Z, Guo J, Chen K (2013) The generation and evolution of Archean continental crust in the Dunhuang block, northeastern tarim craton, northwestern China. Precambrian Res 235:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental GeologyThe First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic AdministrationQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine GeologyQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and EnvironmentInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Isotope GeochemistryGuangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of GeologyNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  6. 6.Radiogenic Isotope Facility, School of Earth SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations