Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 107, Issue 5, pp 679–707 | Cite as

Crustal age domains and metamorphic reworking of the deep crust in Northern-Central Tanzania: a U/Pb zircon and monazite age study

  • V. Tenczer
  • Ch. Hauzenberger
  • H. Fritz
  • G. Hoinkes
  • S. Muhongo
  • U. Klötzli
Special Issue Gondwana Collision

Abstract

Geochronological data are presented from Northern Tanzania, where deep-crustal terranes of different age are exposed. Stacking of these terranes was diachronous with one peak around 640 Ma, defined as East African Orogeny, and final consolidation at 550–580 Ma, that is defined as Kuunga Orogeny. This later event is predominant in the Western Granulite Belt of northern Tanzania and related to thrusting onto the Tanzanian Craton. The Tanzania Craton itself experienced a polycyclic history; age domains around 2.64 Ga prevail in the studied samples. There is no evidence of the Paleoproterozoic Usagaran Belt in northern Tanzania. Here the gneisses contain relicts of reworked Archean basement and are therefore considered part of the Western Granulites. Inliers of the Western Granulites are also found in the cores of marble antiforms that are part of the upper, sedimentary sequence of the Eastern Granulites. Those inliers formed during the Kuungan orogenic phase when the Eastern Granulites have taken their final position and were folded together with the Western Granulites.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was financially supported by the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF) Project Nr. T247-N10 and the Swedish Museum of Natural History (HIGHLAT) within the IHP Programme (HPRI-CT-2001-00125) funding the geochronological campaign using the SIMS. For analytical and methodical support at the SIMS M. Whitehouse is thanked. For analytical and support and data reduction using LA-ICP-MS J. Kosler is thanked.

References

  1. Appel P, Möller A, Schenk V (1998) High-pressure granulite facies metamorphism in the Pan-African belt of eastern Tanzania: P-T-t evidence against granulite formation by continent collision. J Metamorph Geol 16:491–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellucci JJ, McDonough WF, Rudnick RL (2011) Thermal history and origin of the Tanzanian Craton from Pb isotope thermochronology of feldspars from lower crustal xenoliths. Earth Planet Sci Lett 301:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blondes MS, Rudnick RL, Ramezani J, Bowring SA, Piccoli PM (submitted) Thermal evolution of the deepest reaches of a continental collision: evidence from U-Pb dating of accessory phases from deep crustal xenoliths from the Pan-African Mozambique Belt, Northern Tanzania. submitted to Contribution Mineralogy and PetrologyGoogle Scholar
  4. Collins AS, Pisarevsky SA (2005) Amalgamating eastern Gondana: the evolution of the zircum Indian Orogens. Earth Sci Rev 71:229–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Collins AS, Reddy SM, Buchan C, Mruma A (2004) Temporal constraints on Palaeoproterozoic eclogite formation and exhumation (Usagaran Orogen Tanzania). Earth Planet Sci Lett 224:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Corfu F, Hanchar JM, Hoskin PWO, Kinny P (2003) Atlas of Zircon textures. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 53:469–500Google Scholar
  7. Cutten H, Johnson SP, deWaele B (2006) Protolith ages and timing of metasomatism related to the formation of whithschists at Mautia Hill, Tanzania: implications for the assembly of Gondwana. J Geol 114:683–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feneyrol J, Monié P, Guiliani G, Ohnenstetter D, Malisa E (2011) Panafrican 39Ar/40Ar ages (520–505 Ma) of the tsavorite deposits in the Lelatema Fold Belt (northeastern Tanzania). Geophys Res Abstr 13. EGU2011-3434Google Scholar
  9. Frisch W, Pohl W (1986) Petrochemistry of some mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Mozambique Belt, SE-Kenya.- Mitteilung Österreichischer Geologischer Gesellschaft 78:97–114Google Scholar
  10. Fritz H, Tenczer V, Hauzenberger CA, Wallbrecher E, Hoinkes G, Muhongo S, Mogessie A (2005) Central Tanzanian Tectonic Map (CTTM): a step forward to decipher Pre Pan-African and Pan-African structural events. Tectonics 24:TC6013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fritz H, Tenczer V, Hauzenberger CA, Wallbrecher E, Muhongo S (2009) Hot granulite nappes—tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the granulite belts in East Africa. Tectonophysics 477:160–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gabert G, Wendt I (1974) Datierung von granitischen Gesteinen im Dodoman- und Usagaran- System und in der Ndembera-Serie (Tanzania). Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe B 11:3–55Google Scholar
  13. Handke M, Tucker RD, Ashwal LD (1999) Neoproterozoic continental arc magmatism in west-central Madagascar. Geol 27:351–354Google Scholar
  14. Hauzenberger CA, Bauernhofer AH, Hoinkes G, Wallbrecher E, Mathu EM (2004) Pan-African high pressure granulites from SE-Kenya: petrological and geothermobarometric evidence for a polycyclic evolution in the Mozambique belt. J Afr Earth Sci 40:245–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hauzenberger CA, Sommer S, Fritz H, Bauernhofer A, Kröner A, Hoinkes G, Wallbrecher E, Thöni M (2007) SHRIMP U–Pb zircon and Sm–Nd garnet ages from granulite facies basement of SE-Kenya: evidence for Neoproterozoic polycyclic assembly of the Mozambique belt. J Geol Soc Lond 164:189–201. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492005-081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hauzenberger CA, Tenczer V, Fritz H, Thöni M (2011) Central Tanzanian granulites from Makubike: a PT-t study.- 23rd Colloquium of African Geology (CAG23), University of Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa, abstract volume, p 184Google Scholar
  17. Hepworth JV (1972) The Mozambique Orogenic Belt and its foreland in northeast Tanzania, a photogeologically-based study. J Geol Soc Lond 128:461–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoffman PF (1991) Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwana inside out? Science 252:1409–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoffman PF (1999) The break-up of Rodinia birth of Gondwana true polar wander and the snowball Earth. J Afr Earth Sci 28:17–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson SP, Cutten HNC, Muhongo S, De Waele B (2003) Neoarchaean magmatism and metamorphism of the western granulites in the central domain of the Mozambique belt, Tanzania: U–Pb shrimp geochronology and PT estimates. Tectonophysics 375:125–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson PR, Andresen A, Collins AS, Fowler AR, Fritz H, Ghebreab W, Kusky T, Stern RJ (2011) Late Cryogenian-Ediacaran 1 history of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: a review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen. Journal of African Earth Sciences, in press.Google Scholar
  22. Kretz R (1983) Symbols for rockforming minerals. Am Min 68:277–279Google Scholar
  23. Kröner A (2001) The Mozambique belt of East Africa and Madagascar: significance of zircon and Nd model ages for Rodinia and Gondwana supercontinent formation and dispersal. S Afr J Geol 104:151–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kröner A, Hegner E, Collins AS, Windley BF, Brewer TS, Razakamanana T, Pidgeon RT (2000) Age and magmatic history of the Antananarivo Block central Madagascar as derived from zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic systematics. Am J Sci 300:251–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. LeGoff E, Dechamps Y, Guerrot C (2010) Tectonic implications of new zircon Pb-Pb evaporation data in the Lossogonoi and Longido ruby-districts, Mozambican metamorphic Belt in north-eastern Tanzania. C R Geosci 342:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ludwig KY (2001) Isoplot/Ex, rev. 2.49. A Geochro No Logical Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center, Special Publication No. 1aGoogle Scholar
  27. Maboko MAH (1995) Neodymium isotopic constraints on the protolith ages of rocks involved in Pan-African tectonism in the Mozambique Belt of Tanzania. J Geol Soc Lond 152:911–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maboko MAH, Boelrijk NAIM, Priem HNA, Verdurmen EATH (1985) Zircon U-Pb and biotite Rb-Sr dating of the Wami River Granulites Eastern Granulites Tanzania: Evidence for approximately 715 Ma old granulite-facies metamorphism and final Pan-African cooling approximately 475 Ma ago. Precambrian Res 30:361–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maboko MAH, McDougall I, Zeitler PK (1989) Dating late Pan-African cooling in the Uluguru granulite complex of Eastern Tanzania using the 40Ar-39Ar technique. J Afr Earth Sci 9:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maboko MAH (2000) Nd and Sr isotopic investigation of the Archean-Proterozoic boundary in north eastern Tanzania: constraints on the nature of Neoproterozoic tectonism in the Mozambique Belt. Precambrian Res 102:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maboko MAH (2001) Dating post-metamorphic cooling of the Eastern Granulites in the Mozambique Belt of northern Tanzania using the garnet Sm-Nd method. Gondwana Res 4:326–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maboko MAH, Nakamura E (2002) Isotopic dating of Neoproterozoic crustal growth in the Usambara Mountains of Northeastern Tanzania: evidence for coeval crust formation in the Mozambique Belt and the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Precambrian Res 113:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Malisa E (1987) Geology of the tanzanite gemstone deposits in the Lelatema area NE Tanzania. Ann Acad Sci Fenn, series A: 146Google Scholar
  34. Mansur AT, Manya S, Timpa S, Rudnick TL (2011) Origin of Archean lower continental crust, Northern Tanzania: a xenolith study. submitted to J PetrGoogle Scholar
  35. Meert JG (2003) A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonophysics 362:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Melezhik VA, Bingen B, Fallick AE, Gorokhov IM, Kuznetsov AB, Sandstad JS, Solli A, Bjerkgard T, Henderson I, Boyd R, Jamal D, Moniz A (2008) Isotope chemostratigraphy of marbles in northeastern Mozambique: apparent depositional ages and tectonostratigraphic implications. Precambrian Res 162:540–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Möller A, Appel P, Mezger K, Schenk V (1995) Evidence for a 2 Ga subduction zone: eclogites in the Usagarian belt of Tanzania. Geology 23:1067–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Möller A, Mezger K, Schenk V (1998) Crustal age domains and the evolution of the continental crust in the Mozambique Belt of Tanzania: combined Sm-Nd Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isotopic evidence. J Pet 39:749–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Möller A, Mezger K, Schenk V (2000) U-Pb dating of metamorphic minerals: Pan-African metamorphism and prolonged slow cooling of high pressure granulites in Tanzania East Africa. Precambrian Res 104:123–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mruma AH (1989) Stratigraphy, metamorphism and tectonic evolution of the early Proterozoic Usagaran Belt, Tanzania. Research Terrae, (Series A), p 193Google Scholar
  41. Mruma AH (1995) Stratigraphy and paleodepositional environment of the Paleoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Konse Group in Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 21:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Muhongo S, Tuisku P, Mtoni Y (1999) Pan-African pressure-temperature evolution in the Merelani area in the Mozambique Belt in North-East Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 29:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pinna P, Cocherie A, Thieblemont D, Feybesse JL, Lagny P (1996) Evolution géodynamique du Craton Est-Africain et déterminisme gitologique. Chronique de Recherche Minie`re 525:33–43Google Scholar
  44. Reddy SM, Collins AS, Mruma A (2003) Complex high-strain deformation in the Usagaran Orogen, Tanzania: structural setting of Palaeoproterozoic eclogites. Tectonophysics 375:101–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reddy SM, Collins AS, Buchan AC, Mruma AH (2004) Heterogeneous excess argon and Neoproterozoic heating in the Usagaran Orogen, Tanzania, revealed by single grain 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology. J Afr Earth Sci 39:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rossetti F, Cozzupoli D, Phillips D (2008) Compressional reworking of the East African Orogen in the Uluguru Mountains of eastern Tanzania at c. 550 Ma: implications for the final assembly of Gondwana. Terra Nova 20:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sommer H, Kröner A, Hauzenberger CA, Muhongo S, Wingate MTD (2003) Metamorphic petrology and zircon geochronology of high-grade rocks from the central Mozambique Belt of Tanzania; crustal recycling of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic materials during the Pan-African Orogeny. J Met Geol 21:915–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sommer H, Kröner A, Muhongo S, Hauzenberger C (2005) SHRIMP zircon ages for post-Usagaran granitoid and rhyolitic rocks from the Palaeoproterozoic terrain of southwestern Tanzania. S Afr J Geol 108:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sommer H, Hauzenberger Ch, Kröner A, Muhongo S (2008) Isothermal decompression history in the ‘‘Western Granulite” terrain, central Tanzania. Evidence from reaction textures and trapped fluids in metapelites. J Afr Earth Sci 51:123–144Google Scholar
  50. Spooner CM, Hepworth JV, Fairbairn HW (1970) Whole rock Rb-Sr isotope investigation of some East African Granulites. Geol Mag 107:511–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stacey JS, Kramers JD (1975) Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 26:207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Steiger RH, Jäger B (1977) Subcommission on geochronology: convention on the use of decay constants in geo-and cosmochronology. EPSL 36:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stern RJ (2002) Crustal evolution in the East African Orogen: a neodymium isotopic perspective. J Afr Earth Sci 34:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sylvester PJ, Ghaderi M (1997) Trace element analysis of scheelite by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS using a synthetic silicate glass standard. Chem Geol 141:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tenczer V, Hauzenberger CA, Fritz H, Whitehouse MJ, Mogessie A, Wallbrecher E, Muhongo S, Hoinkes G (2006) Anorthosites in the Eastern Granulites of Tanzania. New SIMS zircon U-Pb age data, petrography and geochemistry. Precambrian Res 148:85–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tenczer V, Fritz H, Bauernhofer A, Hauzenberger CA (2007) Two orogens—one shear belt: 1 Ga of repeated deformation along the Central Tanzanian Shear Belt. J Struct Geol 29:1632–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tenczer V, Hauzenberger CA, Fritz H, Hoinkes G, Muhongo S, Klötzli U (2011) The P–T–X(fluid) evolution of meta-anorthosites in the Eastern Granulites, Tanzania. J Metamorph Geol 29:537–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vogt M, Kröner A, Poller U, Sommer H, Muhongo M, Wingate MTD (2006) Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic gneisses reworked during a Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) high-grade event in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: structural relationships and zircon ages from the Kidatu area, central Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 45:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wiedenbeck M, Alle P, Corfu F, Griffin WL, Meier M, Oberli F, von Quadt A, Roddick JC, Spiegel W (1995) Three natural zircon standards for U-TH-PB, LU-HF, trace element and REE analyses. Geostand Newslett 19:1–23Google Scholar
  60. Whitehouse MJ, Claesson S, Sunde T, Vestin J (1997) Ion microprobe U-Pb zircon geochronology and correlation of Archaean gneisses from the Lewisian Complex of Gruinard Bay northwestern Scotland. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:4429–4438CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Tenczer
    • 1
  • Ch. Hauzenberger
    • 1
  • H. Fritz
    • 1
  • G. Hoinkes
    • 1
  • S. Muhongo
    • 2
  • U. Klötzli
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.University of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  3. 3.Department of Lithospheric ResarchUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations