Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 99, Issue 1–2, pp 29–42

On the origin of silicate-bearing diamondites

Original Paper

Abstract

Garnets and clinopyroxenes, intergrown with diamonds in 37 diamondites (“bort”, “polycrystalline diamond aggregates”, “polycrystalline diamond”, “framesite”), presumably from southern Africa, were analyzed for trace element contents by LA-ICP-MS. The intimate diamond-silicate intergrowths suggest that both precipitated from the same fluids during the same crystallization events. In this study we distinguish 5 chemical garnet groups: “peridotitic” (P), intermediate (I) and 3 “eclogitic” groups (E1, E2 and E3). Chondrite-normalized trace element patterns for the garnet groups roughly correlate with major element abundances. Most of P garnets show complex, mildly sinusoidal REEN patterns with relatively flat HREEN-MREEN, a small hump at Sm-Nd and depleted LREEN, and have relatively high contents of Nb, Ta, U, and Th. The REEN abundance patterns of E garnets differ by showing a continuous increase from LREE to HREE and depletion in LREE and highly incompatible elements relative to the P garnets. Of all garnet groups, E3 garnets are the poorest in highly incompatible trace elements and in Mg. Model equilibrium fluids for P garnets suggest crystallization from magnesian carbonate-bearing fluids/melts, which were very rich in incompatible trace elements — similar to kimberlites. Hypothetical equilibrium melts for E1 and E2 garnets are also magnesian and poorer in LREE and highly incompatible elements relative to typical kimberlitic or carbonatitic melts. Fluids that crystallized the P and most of the E garnets have similar mg numbers indicating a peridotitic source for both. The differences in Cr and highly incompatible element contents can be the result of differences in fluid formation and/or evolution rather than different source rock. The positive correlation of Cr2O3 and mg with the abundances of highly incompatible elements in garnets indicate fluid-rock fractionation processes rather than igneous fractional crystallization processes being responsible for the evolution of the diamondite-forming fluids.

References

  1. Araújo DP, Griffin WL, O'Reilly SY, Grant KJ, Ireland T, Holden P, van Achterbergh E (2009) Microinclusions in monocrystalline octahedral diamonds and coated diamonds from Diavik, Slave Craton: Clues to diamond genesis. Lithos (2009), doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2009.04.021
  2. Bulatov V, Brey GP, Foley SF (1991) Origin of low-Ca, high-Cr garnets by recrystallization of low-pressure harzburgites. In: Proc Fifth Internat Kimberlite Conf, Araxá. CPRM Spec Publ:29–31.Google Scholar
  3. Burgess R, Johnson LH, Mattey DP, Harris JW, Turner G (1998) He, Ar and C isotopes in coated and polycrystalline diamonds. Chem Geol 146:205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canil D, Wei K (1992) Constraints on the origin of mantle-derived low Ca garnets. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cartigny P, Harris JW, Javoy M (1998) Eclogitic diamond formation at Jwaneng: No room for recycled component. Science 280:1421–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cartigny P, Harris JW, Javoy M (2001) Diamond genesis, mantle fractionations and mantle nitrogen content: a study δ13C - N concentrations in diamonds. Earth Planet Sci Lett 185:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dasgupta R, Hirschmann M (2006) Melting in the Earth’s deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide. Nature 440:659–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deines P (1980) The carbon isotopic composition of diamonds: relationship to diamond shape, color, occurrence and vapor composition. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:943–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deines P, Harris JW, Gurney JJ (1993) Depth-related carbon isotope and nitrogen concentration variability in the mantle below the Orapa kimberlite, Botswana, Africa. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:2781–2796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobosi G, Kurat G (2002) Trace element abundances in garnets and clinopyroxenes from diamondites — a signature of carbonatitic fluids. Mineral Petrol 76:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dobosi G, Kurat G (2008) Origin of silicate-bearing diamondites. (2008) 9th International Kimberlite Conference, Frankfurt, 10–15 August, extended abstract No. 9IKC-A-00088.Google Scholar
  12. Galimov EM (1991) Isotope fractionation related to kimberlite magmatism and diamond formation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:1697–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gautheron C, Cartigny P, Moreira M, Harris JW, Allègre CJ (2005) Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana). Earth Planet Sci Lett 240:559–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Green TH, Blundy JD, Adam J, Yaxley GM (2000) SIMS determination of trace element partition coefficients between garnet, clinopyroxene and hydrous basaltic liquids at 2–7.5 GPa and 1080–1200°C. Lithos 53:165–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY (2007) Cratonic lithospheric mantle: Is anything subducted? Episodes 30:43–53Google Scholar
  16. Gurney JJ, Boyd FR (1982) Mineral intergrowths with polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa Mine, Botswana. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearbook 81:267–273Google Scholar
  17. Gurney JJ, Harris JW, Rickard RS (1984) Silicate and oxide inclusions in diamonds from the Orapa Mine, Botswana. In: Kornprobst J, (Editor) Kimberlites II. The mantle and crust-mantle relationships. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–9.Google Scholar
  18. Honda M, Philips D, Harris JW, Yatsevich I (2004) Unusual noble gas composition in polycrystalline diamonds: preliminary results from Jwaneng kimberlite, Botswana. Chem Geol 203:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Horn I, Hinton RW, Jackson SE, Longerich HP (1997) Ultra-trace element analysis of NIST SRM 616 and 614 using Laser Ablation Microprobe — Inductively Coupled Plasma — Mass Spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS): a comparison with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Geostandards Newsletter 21:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Izraeli ES, Harris JW, Navon O (2001) Brine inclusions in diamonds: A new upper mantle fluid. Earth Planet Sci Lett 187:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacob DE, Viljoen KS, Grassineau N, Jagoutz E (2000) Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond. Science 289:1182–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacob DE, Kronz A, Viljoen KS (2004) Cohenite, native iron and troilite inclusions in garnets from polycrystalline diamond aggregates. Contrib Mineral Petrol 146:566–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacob DE, Wirth R, Enzmann F, Schwarz JO, Kronz A (2008) Constraints on processes of diamond formation from inclusions in polycrystalline diamond (framesite). 9th International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstract No. 9IKC-A-00159Google Scholar
  24. Jenner GA, Foley SF, Jackson SE, Green TH, Fryer BJ, Longerich HP (1994) Determination of partition coefficients for trace elements in high pressure-temperature experimental run products by laser ablation microprobe-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS). Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:5099–5103Google Scholar
  25. Kamenetsky MB, Sobolev AV, Kamenetsky VS (2004) Kimberlite melts rich in alkali chlorides and carbonates: A potent metasomatic agent in the mantle. Geology 32:845–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaminskiy FV, Galimov EM, Genshaft YuS, Ivanovskaya IN, Klyuyev YuA, Rovsha VS, Sandomirskaya SM, Smirnov VI (1981) Bort with garnet from the Mir pipe, Yakutia. Doklady Acad Nauk SSSR, Earth Sci Sections 256:115–117Google Scholar
  27. Kirkley MB, Gurney JJ, Rickard RS (1991a) Jwaneng framesites: carbon isotopes and intergrowth compositions. In: Proc Fifth Internat Kimberlite Conf, Araxá. CPRM Spec Publ:127–135.Google Scholar
  28. Kirkley MB, Gurney JJ, Levinson A (1991b) Age, origin, and emplacement of diamonds: scientific advances in the last decade. Gems Gemology 27:2–25Google Scholar
  29. Klemme S (2004) Evidence for fluoride melts in the Earth’s mantle formed by liquid immiscibility. Geology 32:441–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kumar MDS, Akaishi M, Yamaoka S (2000) Formation of diamond from supercritical H2O-CO2 fluid at high pressure and high temperature. J Crystal Growth 213:203–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kurat G, Dobosi G (2000) Garnet and diopside-bearing diamondites (framesites). Mineral Petrol 69:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kurat G, Palme H, Spettel B, Baddenhausen H, Hofmeister H, Palme C, Wänke H (1980) Geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths from Kapfenstein, Austria: Evidence for a variety of upper mantle processes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kurat G, Palme H, Embey-Isztin A, Touret J, Ntaflos T, Spettel B, Brandstätter F, Dreibus G, Prinz M (1993) Petrology and geochemistry of peridotites and associated vein rocks of Zabargad Island, Red Sea, Egypt. Mineral Petrol 48:309–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kurat G, Dobosi G, Brandstätter F (1999) Diamondite: a fluid-born upper mantle rock (abstract). Eu J Mineral 11, Beiheft:140.Google Scholar
  35. Litvin YuA (2007) High-pressure mineralogy of diamond genesis. In: Ohtani E, (Ed.) Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy. GSA Spec Paper 421:83–103Google Scholar
  36. Litvin YuA, Zharikov VA (1999) Primary fluid-carbonatite inclusions in diamond: experimental modeling in the system K2O-Na2O-CaO-MgO-FeO-CO2 as a diamond formation medium at 7–9 GPa. Doklady Earth Sci 367A:801–805Google Scholar
  37. Litvin YuA, Spivak AV (2003) Rapid growth of diamondite at the contact between graphite and carbonate melt. Experiments at 7.5–8.5 GPa. Doklady Earth Sci 391A:888–891Google Scholar
  38. Litvin YuA, Chudinovskikh LT, Zharikov VA (1997) Experimental crystallisation of diamond and graphite from alkali-carbonate melts at 7–11 GPa. Doklady Earth Sci 355A:908–911Google Scholar
  39. Litvin YuA, Pineau F, Javoy M (2005) Carbon isotope fractionation during diamond synthesis in carbonatite-carbon melts of natural chemistry (experiments at 6.5–7.5 GPa). In: 6th International Symposium on Applied Isotope Geochemistry, Prague, Czech Republic, 2005Google Scholar
  40. Maas R, Kamenetsky MB, Sobolev AV, Kamenetsky VS, Sobolev NV (2005) Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope evidence for a mantle origin of alkali chlorides and carbonates in the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia. Geology 33:549–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Malkovets VG, Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY, Wood BJ (2007) Diamond, subcalcic garnet, and mantle metasomatism: Kimberlite sampling patterns define the link. Geology 35:339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maruoka T, Kurat G, Dobosi G, Koeberl C (2004) Isotopic composition of carbon in diamonds of diamondites: Record of mass fractionation in the upper mantle. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:1635–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moore A, Belousova E (2005) Crystallization of Cr-poor and Cr-rich megacryst suites from the host kimberlite magma: implications for mantle structure and the generation of kimberlite magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 149:462–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Navon O (1999) Diamond formation in the Earth’s mantle. In: Gurney JJ, Gurney JL, Pascoe MD, Richardson SH (Eds.) Proceedings of VII. International Kimberlite Conference, Red Roof Design, Cape Town, vol. 2 (Nixon Volume): p. 584–604.Google Scholar
  45. Orlov YuV, Sobolev NV (1980) Inclusions in pyrope and sub-calcic omphacite in a polycrystalline aggregate of diamond. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 250:938–941Google Scholar
  46. Palme H (1988) Chemical abundances in meteorites. In: Klare G (ed) Reviews in modern astronomy. Springer. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo, pp 28–51Google Scholar
  47. Pal’yanov YuN, Sokol AG (2009) The effect of composition of mantle fluids/melts on diamond formation processes. Lithos. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2009.03.018 Google Scholar
  48. Rege S, Griffin WL, Kurat G, Jackson SE, Pearson PJ, O’Reilly SY (2008) Trace-element geochemistry of diamondite: Crystallisation of diamond from kimberlite-carbonatite melts. Lithos 106:39–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reutskii VN, Logvinova AM, Sobolev NV (1999) Carbon isotopic composition of polycrystalline diamond aggregates with chromite inclusions from the Mir kimberlite pipe, Yakutia. Geochem Int 37:1073–1078Google Scholar
  50. Reutskii VN, Efimova ES, Sobolev NV (2000) Isotopic composition of carbon in polycrystalline aggregates of diamond with inclusions of garnet and rutile from the Mir pipe. Russian Geol Geophys 41:1690–1696Google Scholar
  51. Schrauder M, Navon O (1993) Solid carbon dioxide in a natural diamond. Nature 365:42–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schrauder M, Koeberl C, Navon O (1996) Trace element analyses of fluid-bearing diamonds from Jwaneng, Botswana. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:4711–4724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smyth JR, Caporuscio FA, McCormick TC (1989) Mantle eclogites: evidence of igneous fractionation in the mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 93:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sobolev NV (1977) Deep seated inclusions in kimberlites and the problem of the composition of the upper mantle (English translation of Russian edition 1974 by Brown DA), American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1977, 279 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Stachel T, Harris JW (1997) Diamond precipitation and mantle metasomatism—evidence from the trace element chemistry of silicate inclusions in diamonds from Akwatia, Ghana. Contrib Mineral Petrol 129:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stachel T, Viljoen KS, Brey G, Harris JW (1998) Metasomatic processes in lherzolitic and harzburgitic domains of diamondiferous lithospheric mantle: REE in garnets from xenoliths and inclusions in diamonds. Earth Planet Sci Lett 159:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stachel T, Aulbach S, Brey GP, Harris JW, Leost I, Tappert R, Viljoen KS (2004) The trace element composition of silicate inclusions in diamonds: a review. Lithos 77:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Taylor LA, Snyder GA, Crozaz G, Sobolev VN, Yefimova ES, Sobolev NV (1996) Eclogitic inclusions in diamonds: Evidence of complex mantle processes over time. Earth Planet Sci Lett 142:535–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Taylor WR, Green DH (1989) The role of reduced C-O-H fluids in mantle partial melting. In: Ross J (ed) Kimberlites and related rocks: Proceedings of the Fourth International kimberlite conference. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Carlton, Australia, pp 592–602Google Scholar
  60. Thomassot E, Cartigny P, Harris JW, Viljoen KS (2007) Methane-related diamond crystallization in the Earth's mantle: Stable isotope evidences from a single diamond-bearing xenolith. Earth Planet Sci Lett 257:362–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thomassot E, Cartigny P, Harris JW (2008) Metasomatic Processes in the Cratonic Lithosphere: the case of Polycrystalline Diamonds. 9th International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstract No. 9IKC-A-00313Google Scholar
  62. Wang W (1998) Formation of diamond with mineral inclusions of “mixed” eclogitic and peridotitic paragenesis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 160:831–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Woodland AB, Koch M (2003) Variation in oxygen fugacity with depth in the upper mantle beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa. Earth Planet Sci Lett 214:295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Geochemical ResearchHungarian Academy of SciencesBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Lithospheric ResearchUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations