Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 96, Issue 3–4, pp 177–196 | Cite as

Lutetian arc-type magmatism along the southern Eurasian margin: New U-Pb LA-ICPMS and whole-rock geochemical data from Marmara Island, NW Turkey

  • P. Ayda Ustaömer
  • Timur Ustaömer
  • Alan S. Collins
  • Jörg Reischpeitsch
Original Paper


The rocks of Turkey, Greece and Syria preserve evidence for the destruction of Tethys, the construction of much of the continental crust of the region and the formation of the Tauride orogenic belt. These events occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Miocene, but the detailed evolution of the southern Eurasian margin during this period of progressive continental accretion is largely unknown. Marmara Island is a basement high lying at a key location in the Cenozoic Turkish tectonic collage, with a Palaeogene suture zone to the south and a deep Eocene sedimentary basin to the north. North-dipping metamorphic thrust sheets make up the island and are interlayered with a major metagranitoid intrusion. We have dated the intrusion by Laser Ablation ICP-MS analysis of U and Pb isotopes on zircon separates to 47.6 ± 2 Ma. We also performed major- and trace-elemental geochemical analysis of 16 samples of the intrusion that revealed that the intrusion is a calc-alkaline, metaluminous granitoid, marked by Nb depletion relative to LREE and LIL-element enrichment when compared to ocean ridge granite (ORG). We interpret the metagranitoid sill as a member of a mid-Eocene magmatic arc, forming a 30 km wide and more than 200 km long arcuate belt in NW Turkey that post-dates suturing along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture zone. The arc magmatism was emplaced at the early stages of mountain building, related to collision of Eurasia with the Menderes-Taurus Platform in early Eocene times. Orogenesis and magmatism loaded the crust to the north creating coeval upward-deepening marine basins partially filled by volcanoclastic sediments.


Eocene Mylonitic Foliation Menderes Massif Slab Breakoff Plutonic Belt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was partly supported by a TÜBİTAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) grant to P.A.U. (TÜBİTAK post-doctoral overseas research grant). The authors would like to thank John Stanley, David Bruce, Justin Payne and Ben Wade from the University of Adelaide for their help during the laboratory studies. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute in Ankara is greatly appreciated for preparation of thin sections. We are also grateful to Mehmet Keskin of Istanbul University for his suggestions on geochemistry section and to Tolga Görüm of Yıldız Technical University for his assistance in drafting some of the figures. Constructive and helpful reviews, provided by Gernold Zulauf, Aral Okay and A. Möller are greatly acknowledged.


  1. Abdüsselamoğlu MŞ (1977) The Palaeozoic and Mesozoic in the Gebze region explanatory text and excursion guidebook. 4th Colloquium on the Aegean Region, Exc. 4, İ.T.Ü. Maden Fakültesi, Istanbul, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksoy R (1995) Stratigraphy of the Marmara Island and the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Adası ve Kapıdağ Yarımadası’nın stratigrafisi). TAPG (Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists) Bulletin 7/1:33–49 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  3. Aksoy R (1996) Mesoscopic tectonic features of the Marmara Island and Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Adası ve Armutlu Yarımadası’nın mezoskopik tektonik özellikleri). Turk J Eart Sci 5:187–195 in TurkishGoogle Scholar
  4. Aksoy R (1999) Relation between progressive regional metamorphism and tectonic history in the Marmara Island (Marmara Adası’nda ilerleyen bölgesel metamorfizma ve tektonik geçmiş arasındaki ilişki). Geol Bull Turk 42(11):1–14 in TurkishGoogle Scholar
  5. Altunkaynak Ş (2007) Collision-driven slab breakoff magmatism in northwestern Anatolia, Turkey. J Geol 115:63–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atherton MP, Ghani AA (2002) Slab breakoff: a model for Caledonian, Late Granite syn-collisional magmatism in orthotectonic (metamorphic) zone of Scotland and Donegal (Ireland). Lithos 62:65–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Batchelor RA, Bowden P (1985) Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters. Chem Geol 48:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beccaletto L, Jenny C (2004) Geology and correlation of the Ezine Zone: a Rhodope fragment in NW Turkey? Turk J Eart Sci 13:145–176Google Scholar
  9. Beccaletto L, Bonev N, Bosch D, Bruguier O (2007) Record of a Palaeogene syn-collisional extension in the north Aegean region: evidence from the Kemer micaschists (NW Turkey). Geol Mag 144(2):393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown SAM, Robertson AHF (2000) Sedimentary geology as a key to the understanding the tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic-Early Tertiary Paikon Massif, Vardar Suture Zone, N Greece. Sed Geol 160:179–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown GC, Thorpe RS, Webb PC (1984) The geochemical characteristics of granitoids in contrasting arcs and comments on magma sources. J Geol Soc London 141:413–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins AS, Robertson AHF (1997) Lycian melange, southwestern Turkey: an emplaced Late Cretaceous accretionary complex. Geology 25:255–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins AS, Robertson AHF (1998) Processes of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene episodic thrust-sheet translation in the Lycian Taurides, SW Turkey. J Geol Soc London 155:759–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De La Roche H, Leterrier J, Grandclaude P, Marchal M (1980) A classification of volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1R2-diagram and major element analyses—its relationships with current nomenclature. Chem Geol 29:183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Debon F, Le Fort P (1983) A chemical-mineralogical classification of common plutonic rocks and associations. T Roy Soc Edin-Earth Sci 73:135–149Google Scholar
  16. Delaloye M, Bingöl E (2000) Granitoids from western and northwestern Anatolia: geochemistry and modelling of geodynamic evolution. Geol Bull Turk 42:241–268Google Scholar
  17. Eyidoğan H (1988) Rates of crustal deformation in Western Turkey as deduced from major earthquakes. Tectonophysics 148:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frost BR, Barnes CG, Collins WJ, Arculus RJ, Ellis DJ, Frost CD (2001) A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. J Petrol 42:2033–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Genç ŞC (1998) Evolution of the Bayramiç magmatic complex, Northwestern Anatolia. J Volcanol Geoth Res 85:233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Göncüoğlu MC, Erendil M (1990) Pre-late cretaceous tectonic units of the Armutlu peninsula (Armutlu Yarımadasının Geç Kretase öncesi tektonik birimleri). Proceedings of 8th Petroleum Congress of Turkey, pp 161–168 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  21. Göncüoğlu MC, Özcan A, Turhan N, Işık A (1992) Stratigraphy of the Kütahya region: In: A Geotraverse across Tethyan suture zones in NW Anatolia. Field guide book for the Symposium on the Geology of the Black Sea region, Ankara, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  22. Harris NBW, Kelley S, Okay Aİ (1994) Post-collisional magmatism and tectonics in northwestern Anatolia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 117:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jackson SE, Pearson NJ, Griffin WL, Belousova EA (2004) The application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in-situ U/Pb zircon geochronology. Chem Geol 211:47–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Janousek V, Farrow CM, Erban V (2006) Interpretation of whole-rock geochemical data in igneous geochemistry: introducing Geochemical Data Toolkit (GCDkit). J Petrol 47:1255–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karacık Z, Yılmaz Y, Pearce JA, Ece ÖI (2008) Petrochemistry of the South Marmara granitoids, northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 97:1181–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaymakçı N, Aldanmaz E, Langereis C, Spell TL, Gürer OF, Zanetti KA (2007) Late Miocene transcurrent tectonics in NW Turkey: evidence from paleomagnetism and 39Ar-40Ar dating of alkaline volcanic rocks. Geol Mag 144:379–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keskin M (2003) Magma generation by slab steepening and breakoff beneath a subduction-accretion complex: an alternative model for collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Geophys Res Lett 30:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ketin İ (1946) Geological investigations in the Marmara Island and the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Adası ve Kapıdağ Yarımadası’nda jeolojik incelemeler). İU Sci Fac Bull Serie B XI(2):69–81 in TurkishGoogle Scholar
  29. Köprübaşı N, Aldanmaz E (2004) Geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of Cenozoic I-type granitoids in northwestern Anatolia, Turkey: evidence for magma generation by lithospheric delamination in a post-collisional setting. Int Geol Rev 46:405–429Google Scholar
  30. Lagos M, Scherer EE, Tomaschek F, Münker C, Keiter M, Berndt J, Ballhaus C (2007) High precision Lu/Hf geochronology of Eocene eclogite-facies rocks from Syros, Cyclades, Greece. Chem Geol 243:16–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marchev P, Kaiser-Rohrmeier M, Heinrich C (2005) Hydrothermal ore deposits related to Bulgaria and Greece. Int Geol Rev 27:53–89Google Scholar
  32. Middlemost EAK (1985) Magmas and magmatic rocks: An introduction to igneous petrology: London. Longman, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. MTA (2004) Geological map of Turkey scale 1/500.000. MTA-Mineral Research and Exploration Institute, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  34. Oberhänsli R, Monie P, Candan O, Warkus FC, Partzsch JH, Dora O (1998) The age of blueschist metamorphism in the Mesozoic cover series of the Menderes Massif. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 78(2):309–316Google Scholar
  35. Okay Aİ (1984) Distribution and characteristics of the northwest Turkish blueschists. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) The geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 17: 455–466Google Scholar
  36. Okay Aİ (1989) Tectonic units and sutures in the Pontides, northern Turkey. In: Şengör AMC (ed) Tectonic evolution of the Tethyan Region. Dordrecht, Kluwer, pp 109–115Google Scholar
  37. Okay Aİ (2000) Was the Late Triassic orogeny in Turkey caused by the collision of an oceanic plateau? In: Bozkurt B, Winchester JA, Piper JDA (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 173: 25–42Google Scholar
  38. Okay Aİ (2002) Accretional and collisional orogens in Anatolia. Geol Soc Am Abst 34:329–330Google Scholar
  39. Okay Aİ, Satır M (2000) Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwest Turkey. Geol Mag 137:495–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Okay Aİ, Satır M (2006) Geochronology of Eocene plutonism and metamorphism in northwest Turkey: evidence for a possible magmatic arc. Geodin Acta 19:251–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Okay Aİ, Satır M, Maluski H, Siyako M, Metzger R, Akyüz HS (1996) Palaeo and Neo-Tethyan events in northwest Turkey: Geological and geochronological constraints. In: Yin A, Harrison M (eds) Tectonics of Asia. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 420–441Google Scholar
  42. Okay Aİ, Harris NBW, Kelley SP (1998) Exhumation of blueschists along a Tethyan suture in northwest Turkey. Tectonophysics 285:275–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Okay Aİ, Demirbağ E, Kurt H, Okay N, Kuşçu İ (1999) An active, deep marine strike-slip basin along the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Tectonics 18(1):129–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Okay Aİ, Satır M, Tüysüz O, Akyüz HS, Chen F (2001) The tectonics of the Strandja Massif: Variscan and mid-Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism in the northern Aegean. Int J Earth Sci (Geologische Rundschau) 90:217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Okay Aİ, Bozkurt E, Satır M, Yiğitbaş E, Crowley QG, Shang CK (2008a) Defining the southern margin of Avalonia in the Pontides: geochronological data from the Late Proterozoic and Ordovician granitoids from NW Turkey. Tectonophysics 461:252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Okay Aİ, Satır M, Zattin M, Cavazza W, Topuz G (2008b) An Oligocene ductile strike-slip shear zone: the Uludağ Massif, northwest Turkey-implications for the westward translation of Anatolia. Geol Soc Am Bull 120:893–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Payne JL, Barovich KM, Hand M (2006) Provenance of metasedimentary rocks in the northern Gawler Craton, Australia: implications for Palaeoproterozoic reconstructions. Precambrian Res 148:275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pearce JA, Harris NBW, Tindle AG (1984) Trace element discrimination diagrams for for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. J Petrol 25:956–983Google Scholar
  49. Peccerillo A, Taylor SR (1976) Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Kastamonu area, Northern Turkey. Contrib Mineral Petrol 58:63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pe-Piper G (2004) Unique features of Greek Cenozoic igneous rocks: tectonics and magma sources. 5th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology, Thessaloniki, Greece, 14–20 April 2004, 1208–1211Google Scholar
  51. Pickett E, Robertson AHF (1996) Formation of the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex and related ophiolites in NW Turkey by Palaeotethyan subduction-accretion. J Geol Soc London 153:995–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pickett E, Robertson AHF (2004) Significance of the volcanogenic Nilüfer Unit and related components of the Triassic Karakaya Complex for the Tethyan subduction/accretion processes in NW Turkey. Turk J Eart Sci 13:97–144Google Scholar
  53. Reiners PW, Hammond PE, McKenna JM, Duncan RA (2000) Young basalts of the central Washington Cascades, flux melting of the mantle and trace element signatures of primary arc magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 138:249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ring U, Collins AS (2005) U-Pb SIMS dating of syn-kinematic granites: timing of core-complex formation in the northern Anatolide belt of western Turkey. J Geol Soc London 162:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robertson AHF, Dixon JE (1984) Introduction: aspects of the geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) The geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 17: 1–74Google Scholar
  56. Robertson AHF, Ustaömer T (2004) Tectonic evolution of the Intra-Pontide suture zone in the Armutlu Peninsula, NW Turkey. Tectonophysics 381:175–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Robertson AHF, Ustaömer T, Parlak O, Ünlügenç Ü, Taşlı K, İnan N (2006) The Berit transect of the Tauride thrust belt, S Turkey: Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic accretionary/collisional processes related to closure of the Southern Neotethys. J Asian Earth Sci 27:108–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saner S (1985) Sedimentary sequences and tectonic setting of Saros Gulf region, NE Aegean Sea, Turkey. Bull Geol Soc Turk 28:1–10Google Scholar
  59. Seeber L, Emre Ö, Cormier MH, Sorlien CC, McHugh CMG, Polonia A, Özer N, Çağatay N (2004) Uplift and subsidence from oblique slip: the Ganos-Marmara bend of the North Anatolian Transform, Western Turkey. Tectonophysics 391:239–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y, Sungurlu O (1984) Tectonics of the Mediterranean Cimmerides: nature and evolution of the western termination of Palaeo-Tethys. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) Geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 17: 77–112Google Scholar
  61. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75:181–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Seyitoğlu G, Scott B (1996) The cause of N-S extensional tectonics in western Turkey: tectonic escape vs back-arc spreading vs orogenic collapse. Journal of Geodynamics 22:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Seyitoğlu G, Anderson D, Nowell G, Scott BC (1997) The evolution from Miocene potassic to Quaternary sodic magmatism in Western Turkey: implications for enrichment processes in the lithospheric mantle. J Volcanol Geoth Res 76:127–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shand SJ (1927) Eruptive rocks: Their genesis, composition, classification, and their relation to ore-deposits, with a chapter on meteorites. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Siyako M, Huvaz O (2007) Eocene stratigraphic evolution of the Thrace Basin, Turkey. Sed Geol 198:75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sun S, McDonough WS (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle processes and compositions. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds), Magmatism in the oceanic basins. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 42: 313–345Google Scholar
  67. Tanyolu E (1979) Petrological studies of the Marmara Island metamorphic series (Marmara Adası metamorfik serilerinin petrolojik çalışması). Zonguldak Engineering and Architecture Academy, Habiliation Thesis 108 pp (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  68. Tomaschek F, Kennedy AK, Villa IM, Lagos M, Balhaus C (2003) Zircons from Syros-Cyclades, Greece-recrystallization and mobilization of zircon during high-pressure metamorphism. J Petrol 44:1977–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ustaömer T, Robertson AHF (1993) A Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic marginal basin along the active southern continental margin of Eurasia: evidence from the central Pontides (Turkey) and adjacent regions. Geol J 28:219–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ustaömer T, Robertson AHF (1997) Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the north Tethyan margin in the Central Pontides of northern Turkey. AAPG Memoir 68:255–290Google Scholar
  71. Ustaömer T, Robertson AHF (2005) Discussion: Reply to discussion contribution by A. Elmas and Yiğitbaş, 2005’ on Tectonic evolution of the Intra-Pontide suture zone in the Armutlu Peninsula, NW Turkey by A.H.F. Robertson and T. Ustaömer, Tectonophysics: 381 (2004), 175–209. Tectonophysics 405: 223–231Google Scholar
  72. Ustaömer PA, Ustaömer T, Collins AS, Robertson AHF (2009) Cadomian (Ediacaran-Cambrian) arc magmatism in the Bitlis Massif, SE Turkey: Magmatism along the developing northern margin of Gondwana. Tectonophysics doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.06.010
  73. Yiğitbaş E, Kerrich R, Yılmaz Y, Elmas A, Xie Q (2004) Characteristics and geochemistry of Precambrian ophiolites and related volcanics from the Istanbul-Zonguldak Unit, northwestern Anatolia: following the missing chain of the Precambrian South European suture zone to the east. Precambrian Res 132:179–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yılmaz Y, Genç ŞC, Yiğitbaş E, Bozcu M, Yılmaz K (1995) Geological evolution of the late Mesozoic continental margin of Northwestern Anatolia. Tectonophysics 241:155–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yılmaz,Y, Tüysüz O, Yiğitbaş E, Genç, ŞC, Şengör AMC (1997) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Pontides. In: Robinson AG (ed) Regional and Petroleum Geology of the Black Sea and Surrounding Region. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 68: 183–226Google Scholar
  76. Yüzer E (1971) Engineering geology and anisotropic futures investigation of the Marmara Island marbles (Marmara Adası mermerlerinin mühendislik jeolojisi ve anizotropik özelliklerinin incelenmesi). Istanbul Technical University, Habilitation thesis 128 pp (in Turkish)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Ayda Ustaömer
    • 1
  • Timur Ustaömer
    • 2
  • Alan S. Collins
    • 3
  • Jörg Reischpeitsch
    • 4
  1. 1.Doğa Bilimleri Araştırma MerkeziYıldız Teknik ÜniversitesiBeşiktaş-IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümüİstanbul ÜniversitesiAvcılar-IstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Tectonics and Resources Exploration (TREX), School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Department of GeologyUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations