Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 94, Issue 1–2, pp 45–60 | Cite as

Late Miocene to Pleistocene potassic volcanism in the Republic of Macedonia

  • Yotzo Yanev
  • Blazo Boev
  • Carlo Doglioni
  • Fabrizio Innocenti
  • Piero Manetti
  • Zoltan Pecskay
  • Sonia TonariniEmail author
  • Massimo D’Orazio
Original Paper


The potassic (K) to ultrapotassic (UK) volcanic rocks cropping out in the Vardar Zone of Macedonia and southern Serbia span in age from Late Miocene (6.57 Ма) to Pleistocene (1.47 Ма). The main identified outcrops are in the Kumanovo, Sveti Nikole, Shtip and Demir Kapia areas; the southernmost occurrences of these volcanic rocks are located in the large Kozuf Massif (Voras Massif in Greece) at the Macedonia–Greek border. Three distinct groups may be distinguished. The first group has a shoshonitic affinity and occurs in the Kozuf Massif (LMg-K group); it includes shoshonites to rare rhyolites, with latites and trachytes being the most widespread products. The second group consists of potassic rocks (HMg-K group, K2O/Na2O between 1.0 and 1.8) occurring in both southern Serbia (Cer and Slavujevci) and Macedonia (Djuristhe, near Sveti Nikole). The third group, present only in Macedonia, consists of ultrapotassic rocks (UK group, K2O/Na2O >1.8, Mg# >71) classified as UK shoshonites, UK latites and UK phonotephrites; overall, they show a “Roman Province type” affinity (Group III of Foley, Venturelli, Green, Toscani, Earth Sci Rev 24:81–134, 1987). Geochemically, the studied rocks exhibit strong enrichment in LILE, Th and Pb, as well as relative depletion in Ta–Nb and Hf; such signatures are typical of magmas generated in convergent geotectonic settings. In the HMg-K and UK rocks, Sr and Nd isotopic ratios vary from 0.70768 to 0.71040, and 0.51243 to 0.512149, respectively. The rocks of the LMg-K group show relatively limited Sr and Nd isotope variations (0.7087–0.7093 and 0.51233–0.51229), which correlate with a decrease in MgO and increase in SiO2 contents. The geochemical features of the LMg-K volcanic rocks indicate that their evolution was mainly driven by fractional crystallization coupled with contamination by feldspar-rich crustal materials. In contrast, the HMg-K and UK rocks have not been significantly modified by crustal contamination, and their geochemical features are considered to reflect lithospheric mantle heterogeneity acquired during the subduction of the Western Vardar Ocean and the Apulian plate. The metasomatizing agent was apparently more enriched in Zr, Th, Ta and Ce than in fluid-mobile elements, such as Pb and Cs, suggesting that it was characterized by a high melt/fluid ratio. The potassic and ultrapotassic magmatic activity developed in response to the Pliocene–Pleistocene extension in the Vardar Zone, in turn related to the opposite propagation of extension in the Aegean and Pannonian basins (respectively SW and NE).


Subduction Mantle Source Late Miocene Lithospheric Mantle Crustal Contamination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was financially supported by PRIN (Cofin-MIUR) and by CNR grants. We thank Dejan Prelević and Hilary Downes for their constructive reviews; the editorial handling of Johann Raith was greatly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yotzo Yanev
    • 1
  • Blazo Boev
    • 2
  • Carlo Doglioni
    • 3
  • Fabrizio Innocenti
    • 4
    • 5
  • Piero Manetti
    • 5
  • Zoltan Pecskay
    • 6
  • Sonia Tonarini
    • 5
    Email author
  • Massimo D’Orazio
    • 4
  1. 1.Geological InstituteBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.University St Ciril and Metodii, Faculty of Mining and GeologyShtipRepublic of Macedonia
  3. 3.Università La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraRomeItaly
  4. 4.Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraPisaItaly
  5. 5.Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNRPisaItaly
  6. 6.ATOMKI, Hungarian Academy of SciencesDebrecenHungary

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