The role of carbonic anhydrase α-CA4 in the adaptive reactions of photosynthetic apparatus: the study with α-CA4 knockout plants
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The role of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 (α-CA4) in photosynthetic machinery functioning in thylakoid membranes was studied, using Arabidopsis thaliana wild type plants (WT) and the plants with knockout of At4g20990 gene encoding α-CA4 (αCA4-mut) grown both in low light (LL, 80 μmol quanta m−2 s−1) or in high light (HL, 400 μmol quanta m−2 s−1). It was found that a content of PsbS protein, one of determinants of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, increased in mutants by 30% and 100% compared with WT plants in LL and in HL, respectively. Violaxanthin cycle pigments content and violaxanthin deepoxidase activity in HL were also higher in αCA4-mut than in WT plants. The content of PSII core protein, D1, when adapting to HL, decreased in WT plants and remained unchanged in mutants. This indicates, that the decrease in the content of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 proteins in HL (Rudenko et al. Protoplasma 55(1):69-78, 2018) in WT plants resulted from decrease of both Photosystem II (PSII) complex content and content of these proteins in this complex, whereas in αCA4-mut plants from the latter process only. The absence of α-CA4 did not affect the rate of electron transport through Photosystem I (PSI) in thylakoids of mutant vs. WT, but led to 50–80% increase in the rate of electron transport from H2O to QA, evidencing the location of α-CA4 close to PSII. The latter difference may raise the question about its causal connection with the difference in the D1 protein content change during adapting to increased illumination in the presence and the absence of α-CA4.
KeywordsArabidopsis thaliana Carbonic anhydrase Thylakoid D1 protein PsbS protein Violaxanthin Violaxanthin deepoxidase Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b STN7 kinase Electron transport
The authors express their gratitude to Dr. J.V. Moroney of Louisiana State University for providing the seeds of homozygous lines of mutants with knocked out genes of CA produced in his laboratory.
This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project no. 17-14-01371). It was also supported by funding the themes no. АААА-А17-117030110135-1 and no. АААА-А17-117033010038-7 of State Scientific Program in the part of pigment content measurements.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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