, Volume 256, Issue 6, pp 1507–1517 | Cite as

Elevated gibberellin altered morphology, anatomical structure, and transcriptional regulatory networks of hormones in celery leaves

  • Ao-Qi Duan
  • Kai Feng
  • Jie-Xia Liu
  • Feng Que
  • Zhi-Sheng Xu
  • Ai-Sheng XiongEmail author
Original Article


Gibberellins (GAs), as one of the important hormones in regulating the growth and development of higher plants, can significantly promote cell elongation and expansion. Celery is a widely grown leafy vegetable crop with rich nutritional value. However, the effect of gibberellins on celery leaves is unclear. In this paper, the celery variety “Jinnan Shiqin” plants were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PBZ, a gibberellin inhibitor). Our results showed that GA3 treatment promoted the growth of celery leaves and caused lignification of celery leaf tissue. In addition, the transcript levels of genes associated with gibberellins, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were altered in response to increased or decreased exogenous gibberellins or inhibitor. GA3 may regulate celery growth by interacting with other hormones through crosstalk mechanisms. This study provided a reference for further study of the regulation mechanism of gibberellins metabolism, and exerted effects on understanding the role of gibberellins in the growth and development of celery.


Gibberellin Anatomic Hormone interaction Development Leaves Apium graveolens



ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase




Gibberellic acid








Geranylgeranyl diphosphate


Gibberellin insensitive dwarf1


Isopentenyl pyrophosphate


ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase


ent-kaurene oxidase


ent-kaurene synthase




Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction




Short internode






Author contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ASX AQD. Performed the experiments: AQD KF JXL ZSX. Analyzed the data: AQD KF ASX. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ASX. Wrote the paper: AQD. Revised the paper: ASX FQ. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

The research was supported by Jiangsu Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund [CX(18)2007], National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272175), and Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions Project (PAPD).

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Biology and Germplasm Enhancement of Horticultural Crops in East China, College of HorticultureNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

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