Mesopore structure in Camellia Oleifera shell
- 22 Downloads
Generally, Camellia oleifera shells are byproducts of edible oil production and are often incinerated or discarded as agricultural waste without any sustainable uses. Although numerous studies have focused on the C. oleifera shell, few studies have examined its biological characteristics, particularly its internal mesoporosity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the microscopic biological structure of C. oleifera shells to explore their potential applications. Paraffin-embedded slices of C. oleifera shells were observed on different planes using an optical microscope. Supercritically dried samples were prepared and assessed using the nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique to reveal mesopore structural features. The present article shows that C. oleifera shells were mainly made up of stone cells, parenchyma tissue, spiral vessels, and vascular bundles. The key features of the cells were the pits in the cell walls of stone cells and vessels, which are associated with the abundant mesopores in C. oleifera shells. C. oleifera shells have an advantage over woody materials based on their mesoporosity features. C. oleifera shells are ideal raw materials that could serve as biomass templates or find applications as other high-performance biomimetic materials.
KeywordsCamellia oleifera shell Stone cell Mesopore Nitrogen adsorption
We thank Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Olitea Camellia, Changsha, P.R. China, for assisting us during the field sampling.
Conceived and designed the experiments: QW, SC, JH; performed the experiment: QW, YT; supervised the work: SC, JH; wrote the paper: QW, SC, JH; revised the paper: QW, SC, JH.
This work was financially supported by the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (2017JJ1038).
Compliance with ethical standards
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Ethics approval and consent to participate are not applicable in this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adinaveen T, John Kennedy L, Judith Vijaya J, Sekaran G (2015) Surface and porous characterization of activated carbon prepared from pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw) by two-stage procedure and its applications in supercapacitor electrodes. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 4:736–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-014-0302-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gregg SJ, Sing KSW (1982) Adsorption, surface area and porosity. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- He S, Xu J, Wu z BY, Yu H, Chen Y (2017) Compare of porous structure of moso bamboo and Pinus sylvestris L. lumber. J Nanjing Forestry Univ 41:157–162. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.2017.02.023 Google Scholar
- Kang S, Jianchun J, Dandan C (2011) Preparation of activated carbon with highly developed mesoporous structure from Camellia oleifera shell through water vapor gasification and phosphoric acid modification. Biomass Bioenergy 35:3643–3647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li W, Yang K, Peng J, Zhang L, Guo S, Xia H (2008) Effects of carbonization temperatures on characteristics of porosity in coconut shell chars and activated carbons derived from carbonized coconut shell chars. Ind Crop Prod 28:190–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Liu Y, Peng J, Liu Z, Jiang Y, Meng M, Zhang W, Ni L (2018b) Preparation of high surface area oxidized activated carbon from peanut shell and application for the removal of organic pollutants and heavy metal ions. Water Air Soil Pollut 229:391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-018-4021-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peng K, Hu J, Chen G, Hu K, Ma X (2016) Research of chemical composition and combustion performance of Camellia oleifera fruit shells. J Cent South Univ Forestry Technol 36:123–128. https://doi.org/10.14067/j.cnki.1673-923x.2016.07.021 Google Scholar
- Thommes M, Kaneko K, Neimark AV, James PO, Francisco RR, Jean R, Kenneth SWS (2015) Physisorption of gases, with special reference to the evaluation of surface area and pore size distribution (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 87. https://doi.org/10.1515/ci-2016-0119
- Xiong W, Fu JP, Wang HB, Han XD, lei W (2007) Secondary metabolites from the fruit shells of Camellia oleifera. Chem Nat Compd 54:1189–1191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10600-018-2592-8