High temperature and drought stress cause abscisic acid and reactive oxygen species accumulation and suppress seed germination growth in rice
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Seed germination is one of the most important biological processes in the life cycle of plants, and temperature and water are the two most critical environmental factors that influence seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the roles of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high temperature (HT) and drought-induced inhibition of rice seed germination. HT and drought stress caused ABA accumulation in seeds and inhibited seed germination and seedling establishment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that HT and drought stress induced the expression of OsNCED3, a key gene in ABA synthesis in rice seeds. In addition, ROS (O2•- and H2O2) and malondialdehyde contents were increased in germinating seeds under HT and drought stress. Moreover, we adopted the non-invasive micro-test technique to detect H2O2 and Ca2+ fluxes at the site of coleoptile emergence. HT and drought stress resulted in a H2O2 efflux, but only drought stress significantly induced Ca2+ influx. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were reduced by HT and drought stress, consistent with the expression of OsCu/ZnSOD, OsCATc, and OsAPX2 during seed germination. Altogether, these results suggest that ABA and ROS accumulation under HT and drought conditions can inhibit rice seed germination and growth.
KeywordsCalcium Drought High temperature Oxidative stress Plant hormone Seed biology
Non-invasive Micro-test Technique
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
Reactive Oxygen Species
Juan Liu, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Huili Wen, and Quanzhi Zhao designed and performed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. Jing Zhang carried out data analysis. Ting Peng and Huwei Sun gave technical advice and contributed to the study design. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was supported by Major Science and Technology Project of Henan Province (141100110600), Modern Agricultural Industry Technology System Projects of Henan Province (S2012-04-02), and the Support Plan of Science and Technology Innovation Team in Universities of Henan province (17IRTSTHN015).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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