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Protoplasma

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The bacterial volatile dimethyl-hexa-decylamine reveals an antagonistic interaction between jasmonic acid and cytokinin in controlling primary root growth of Arabidopsis seedlings

  • Ernesto Vázquez-Chimalhua
  • León Francisco Ruíz-Herrera
  • Salvador Barrera-Ortiz
  • Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
  • José López-Bucio
Original Article

Abstract

Chemical communication underlies major adaptive traits in plants and shapes the root microbiome. An increasing number of diffusible and/or volatile organic compounds released by bacteria have been identified, which play phytostimulant or protective functions, including dimethyl-hexa-decylamine (DMHDA), a volatile biosynthesized by Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 that induces jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, he found that the growth repressing effects of both DMHDA and JA are antagonized by kinetin and correlated with an inhibition of cytokinin-related ARR5::GUS and TCS::GFP expression in Arabidopsis primary roots. Moreover, we demonstrate that shoot supplementation of JA triggers JAZ1 expression both locally and systemically and represses cytokinin-dependent promoter activity in roots. A similar effect was observed after cotyledon wounding, in which an increase of JA-inducible LOX2:GUS expression represses root growth, which correlates with the loss of TCS::GFP detection at the very root tip. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial volatile DMHDA crosstalks with cytokinin signaling and reveals the downstream antagonistic interaction between JA and cytokinin in controlling root growth.

Keywords

N-N-dimethyl-hexadecylamine Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonic acid Cytokinin Root growth 

Notes

Funding information

The Coordinación de la Investigación Científica UMSNH (México) funded this work via projects 2.22 (EVC) and 2.26 (JLB).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary figure 1

JA upregulates expression of JAZ1 in nuclei of epidermal cells in cotyledons. Representative confocal images of epidermal cells of cotyledons 12 h after contact with 0.2X MS medium drops without JA (a) or supplemented with 128 μM JA (b). (PNG 2320 kb)

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High Resolution Image (TIF 8917 kb)
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Supplementary figure 2

Expression of early JA-response JAZ1 gene shows JA signal translocation from shoot to stem. Representative confocal images of epidermal cells of stems 24 h after contact with 0.2X MS medium drops without JA (a and d) or supplemented with 64 μM (b and e) or 128 μM (c and f). (PNG 1324 kb)

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High Resolution Image (TIF 5338 kb)
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Supplementary figure 3

TCS::GFP expression is systemically downregulated by cotyledon wounding. Cotyledons of 4 dag seedlings were wounded and the root apex was photographed with a confocal microscope. Representative image are shown from at least 15 seedlings analyzed. The experiment was repeated twice with similar results. (PNG 1948 kb)

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High Resolution Image (TIF 9641 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones Químico-BiológicasUniversidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de HidalgoMoreliaMéxico

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