Protoplasma

pp 1–9

Spatiotemporal deep imaging of syncytium induced by the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

  • Mina Ohtsu
  • Yoshikatsu Sato
  • Daisuke Kurihara
  • Takuya Suzaki
  • Masayoshi Kawaguchi
  • Daisuke Maruyama
  • Tetsuya Higashiyama
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00709-017-1105-0

Cite this article as:
Ohtsu, M., Sato, Y., Kurihara, D. et al. Protoplasma (2017). doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1105-0

Abstract

Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM). Using this system, we found that several cells were incorporated into the syncytium; the nuclei increased in size and the cell wall openings began to be visible at 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Moreover, at 14 DAI, in the syncytium developed in the cortex, there were thickened concave cell wall pillars that resembled “Parthenon pillars.” In contrast, there were many thick board-like cell walls and rarely Parthenon pillars in the syncytium developed in the stele. We revealed that the syncytia were classified into two types based on the pattern of the cell wall structures, which appeared to be determined by the position of the syncytium inside roots. Our results provide new insights into the developmental process of syncytium induced by cyst nematode and a better understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the syncytium in host roots.

Keywords

Plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera Syncytium development Two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM) Deep imaging 

Supplementary material

709_2017_1105_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3 mb)
ESM 1(PDF 2.98 MB)
709_2017_1105_MOESM2_ESM.avi (3.6 mb)
Movie S1Z-stack of optical sections of syncytial nuclei in 14 DAI syncytium (Fig. 1a). (AVI 3648 kb).
709_2017_1105_MOESM3_ESM.avi (6.6 mb)
Movie S2Z-stack of optical sections of cell walls in 14 DAI syncytium induced in the cortex (Fig. 2b). (AVI 6714 kb)
709_2017_1105_MOESM4_ESM.avi (137.3 mb)
Movie S3Three-dimensional (3D) projections of serial optical sections of cell wall in 14 DAI syncytium induced in the cortex (Fig. 2d). (AVI 140629 kb)
709_2017_1105_MOESM5_ESM.mov (1.9 mb)
Movie S4X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z projections of serial optical sections of cell wall in 14 DAI syncytium induced in the cortex (Fig. 2c). (MOV 1922 kb).
709_2017_1105_MOESM6_ESM.mov (20.2 mb)
Movie S5Z-stack of optical sections of cell walls in 14 DAI syncytium induced in the stele at 14 DAI. (MOV 20660 kb).
709_2017_1105_MOESM7_ESM.mov (1.7 mb)
Movie S6X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z projections of serial optical sections of cell wall in 14 DAI syncytium induced in the stele at 14 DAI. (Fig. S4a). (MOV 1718 kb)

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JP)
  • 15J04623
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
  • 15K14542
  • 16H06173
  • 16H06465
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JP)
  • 15K14541
the Japan Science and Technology Agency
  • ERATO project
TOYOAKI SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION
    the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Program in Green Natural Sciences of Nagoya University

      Copyright information

      © Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

      Authors and Affiliations

      1. 1.Graduate School of ScienceNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
      2. 2.Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (ITbM)Nagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
      3. 3.JST ERATO Higashiyama Live-Holonics ProjectNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
      4. 4.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
      5. 5.Division of Symbiotic SystemsNational Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB)OkazakiJapan
      6. 6.Kihara Institute for Biological ResearchYokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan

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