Comparative analysis of transcription factor gene families from Papaver somniferum: identification of regulatory factors involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
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Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), known for biosynthesis of several therapeutically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), has emerged as the premier organism to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The most prominent molecules produced in opium poppy include narcotic analgesic morphine, the cough suppressant codeine, the muscle relaxant papaverine and the anti-microbial agent sanguinarine and berberine. Despite several health benefits, biosynthesis of some of these molecules is very low due to tight temporal and spatial regulation of the genes committed to their biosynthesis. Transcription factors, one of the prime regulators of secondary plant product biosynthesis, might be involved in controlled biosynthesis of BIAs in P. somniferum. In this study, identification of members of different transcription factor gene families using transcriptome datasets of 10 cultivars of P. somniferum with distinct chemoprofile has been carried out. Analysis suggests that most represented transcription factor gene family in all the poppy cultivars is WRKY. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed differential expression pattern of the members of a set of transcription factor gene families among 10 cultivars. Through analysis, two members of WRKY and one member of C3H gene family were identified as potential candidates which might regulate thebaine and papaverine biosynthesis, respectively, in poppy.
KeywordsBenzylisoquinoline alkaloids Biosynthetic pathway Cultivars Papaver somniferum Transcription factors Transcriptome data
- P. somniferum
The authors are thankful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, Govt. of India, for providing the financial support to carry out this work under Network project (BSC-107). SP and PG acknowledge Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, Govt. of India, for Senior Research Fellowships. PA is thankful to Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, for Senior Research Fellowship.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Author’s contribution statement
PA, SP, PG and PKT designed the research. PA and SP performed most of the experiments. DL, PG and MHA carried out the bioinformatics analysis. SP, PG and PKT wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and edited the article and approved the final manuscript.
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