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Protoplasma

, Volume 252, Issue 1, pp 181–198 | Cite as

Polarized endoplasmic reticulum aggregations in the establishing division plane of protodermal cells of the fern Asplenium nidus

  • E. Giannoutsou
  • P. Sotiriou
  • P. Apostolakos
  • B. GalatisEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The determination of the division plane in protodermal cells of the fern Asplenium nidus occurs during interphase with the formation of the phragmosome, the organization of which is controlled by the actomyosin system. Usually, the phragmosomes between adjacent cells were oriented on the same plane. In the phragmosomal cortical cytoplasm, an interphase microtubule (MT) ring was formed and large quantities of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes were gathered, forming an interphase U-like ER bundle. During preprophase/prophase, the interphase MT ring and the U-like ER bundle were transformed into a MT and an ER preprophase band (PPB), respectively. Parts of the ER-PPB were maintained during mitosis. Furthermore, the plasmalemma as well as the nuclear envelope displayed local polarization on the phragmosome plane, while the cytoplasm between them was occupied by distinct ER aggregations. These consistent findings suggest that Α. nidus protodermal cells constitute a unique system in which three elements of the endomembrane system (ER, plasmalemma, and nuclear envelope) show specific characteristics in the establishing division plane. Our experimental data support that the organization of the U-like ER bundle is controlled on a cellular level by the actomyosin system and intercellularly by factors emitted from the leaf apex. The possible role of the above endomembrane system elements on the mechanism that coordinates the determination of the division plane between adjacent cells in protodermal tissue of A. nidus is discussed.

Keywords

Division plane Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Phragmosome Plasmalemma Preprophase band 

Abbreviations

AF-PPB

Actin filament-preprophase band

CLSM

Confocal laser scanning microscope

CRT

Calreticulin

CPA

Cyclopiazonic acid

CW

Cell wall

DIC

Differential interference contrast

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

GMC

Guard cell mother cell

ML-7

1-(5-Iodonaphtalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexohydro-1,4-diazepine

MT

Microtubule

MT-PPB

Microtubule preprophase band

N

Nucleus

PPB

Preprophase band

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their thanks to Dr. H. Quader (Biocentre Klein Flothek, University of Hamburg) for access to their TEM facilities and to Prof. R. Boston (Department of Botany, North Karolina State University) for her kind offer of the antibodies. They also thank Dr. E. Rigana (Biological Imaging Unit, Foundation of Biomedical Research, Athens, Greece) for the use of CLSM, and Dr. K. Karpouzis for the preparation of the video material. This work was financed by the University of Athens.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

709_2014_667_MOESM1_ESM.tif (4.1 mb)
Suppl. Fig. 1 (a-d) Protodermal areas from different leaf regions. In each of them, all the stomatal complexes are in the same developmental stage. The arrows show in (a) newly formed GMCs, in (b) advanced interphase GMCs, in (c) newly formed stomata and in (d) mature stomata. Scale bar = 10 μm (TIFF 4156 kb)
709_2014_667_Fig13_ESM.gif (302 kb)

High resolution image (GIF 301 kb)

709_2014_667_MOESM2_ESM.tif (4.4 mb)
Suppl. Fig. 2 (a-h) Protodermal cell displaying a phragmosome in a series of paradermal semithin sections stained with toluidine blue. The arrows point to the phragmosome plane. In (a) the section passes near the external periclinal cell wall, while in (h) near the internal periclinal cell wall. Scale bar = 10 μm. (TIFF 4518 kb)
709_2014_667_Fig14_ESM.gif (358 kb)

High resolution image (GIF 358 kb)

709_2014_667_MOESM3_ESM.tif (25.8 mb)
Suppl. Fig. 3 Maximum projection of an image stack of 24 optical sections taken by CLSM of a protodermal area after ER immunolocalization and DNA staining with Hoechst 33258. The focal step size between confocal optical sections was 7 μm. Confocal image stacks were analyzed using Lasaf software. The ER is depicted by secondary FITC antibody in green, while the nuclei by Hoechst in blue. The projection shows clearly the U-like ER bundles in the majority of the protodermal cells as well as their arrangement in the same plane between adjacent cells. Scale bar = 20 μm. (TIFF 26466 kb)
709_2014_667_Fig15_ESM.gif (443 kb)

High resolution image (GIF 443 kb)

709_2014_667_MOESM4_ESM.tif (9.3 mb)
Suppl. Fig. 4 (a, c) TEM micrographs of an interphase (a) and a preprophase (c) protodermal cell treated with 25 μM CPA for 24 h, that display a well organized phragmosome (N: nucleus, V: vacuole) Scale bars = 3 μm (a), 5 μm (c). (b, d) The areas of the phragmosome outlined by the frame in (a) and (c) in higher magnification. The arrows point to local ER aggregations in the cortical cytoplasm of the phragmosome. Scale bars = 300 nm (b, d) (TIFF 9546 kb)
709_2014_667_Fig16_ESM.gif (731 kb)

High resolution image (GIF 730 kb)

709_2014_667_MOESM5_ESM.tif (4.9 mb)
Suppl. Fig. 5 TEM micrograph of an interphase (asterisk) and a prophase (square) protodermal cell treated with 25 μM CPA for 24 h. The arrows indicate nuclear envelope dilations in the phragmosome plane (N: nucleus, V: vacuole). Scale bar = 5 μm (TIFF 5042 kb)
709_2014_667_Fig17_ESM.gif (327 kb)

High resolution image (GIF 327 kb)

709_2014_667_MOESM6_ESM.tif (9.4 mb)
Suppl. Fig. 6 (a-d) Area of the nucleus in the phragmosome plane of protodermal cells treated with 25 μM CPA for 24 h. The micrographs show nuclear outer membrane of the nuclear envelope and the arrows ER elements. N: nucleus. Scale bars = 300 nm. (TIFF 9609 kb)
709_2014_667_Fig18_ESM.gif (900 kb)

High resolution image (GIF 900 kb)

709_2014_667_MOESM7_ESM.avi (7.7 mb)
Video 1 Animated z-stack series of interphase protodermal cells observed by CLSM after ER immunodetection with 2E7 antibody. The ER appears green. At the beginning, the video focus on the cortical cytoplasm adjacent to the external periclinal cell wall and as it progresses passes through the middle of the cells and ends near the internal periclinal cell wall. The presence of U-like ER bundle is clear. (AVI 7880 kb)
Video 2

Rotated 3D projection of one of the cells shown in Video 1 using the Volocity 3D Image Analysis Software. At the beginning, the video focus on the U-like ER bundle portion lining the internal periclinal cell wall and then, as it rotates, shows the cortical cytoplasm lining the anticlinal and external periclinal cell wall. The organization of the U-like ER bundle along each of cell walls can be followed. (AVI 625 kb)

Video 3

Successive images of a preprophase/prophase protodermal cell after ER immunodetection with 2E7 antibody. At the beginning, the video focus on the cytoplasm adjacent to the external periclinal cell wall, then it passes through the middle of the cell and ends at the cytoplasm lining the internal periclinal cell wall. The cell displays a well-formed ER-PPB. (AVI 327 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Giannoutsou
    • 1
  • P. Sotiriou
    • 1
  • P. Apostolakos
    • 1
  • B. Galatis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

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