Button botany: plasmodesmata in vegetable ivory
The hard endosperm of species of the palm genus Phytelephas (elephant plant), known as vegetable ivory, was used in the manufacture of buttons in the nineteenth century, the early twentieth century, and again in more recent times. Here, we show that the pathways for intercellular communication, including the cytoplasm in opposite pits and the plasmodesmata that traverse the cell wall, can be visualized in century-old inexpensive buttons that are readily available in antique shops.
KeywordsArecaceae Palm Phytelephas Pits Plasmodesmata Vegetable ivory
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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