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Protoplasma

, Volume 249, Issue 2, pp 285–299 | Cite as

Variations on a theme: plant autophagy in comparison to yeast and mammals

  • Tamar Avin-Wittenberg
  • Arik Honig
  • Gad GaliliEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved process of bulk degradation and nutrient sequestration that occurs in all eukaryotic cells. Yet, in recent years, autophagy has also been shown to play a role in the specific degradation of individual proteins or protein aggregates as well as of damaged organelles. The process was initially discovered in yeast and has also been very well studied in mammals and, to a lesser extent, in plants. In this review, we summarize what is known regarding the various functions of autopahgy in plants but also attempt to address some specific issues concerning plant autophagy, such as the insufficient knowledge regarding autophagy in various plant species other than Arabidopsis, the fact that some genes belonging to the core autophagy machinery in various organisms are still missing in plants, the existence of autophagy multigene families in plants and the possible operation of selective autophagy in plants, a study that is still in its infancy. In addition, we point to plant-specific autophagy processes, such as the participation of autophagy during development and germination of the seed, a unique plant organ. Throughout this review, we demonstrate that the use of innovative bioinformatic resources, together with recent biological discoveries (such as the ATG8-interacting motif), should pave the way to a more comprehensive understanding of the multiple functions of plant autophagy.

Keywords

Autophagy Plants ATG8 ATG18 ATG8-interacting motif 

Abbreviations

AIM

ATG8-interacting motif

ATG

Autophagy

BLAST

Basic local alignment search tool

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

GABARAP

GABA receptor-associated protein

GATE-16

Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer of 16 kDa

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

LC3

Light chain 3 microtubule-associated protein

LIR

LC3-interacting region

NBR1

Neighbor of BRCA1

p62/SQSTM1

Sequestosome 1

PAS

Phagophore assembly site

PCD

Programmed cell death

PI3 kinase

Phosphoinositide 3 kinase

PI(3)P

Phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate

PSV

Protein storage vacuole

RNAi

RNA interference

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TOR

Target of rapamycin

RT-PCR

Real-time polymerase chain reaction

RUBISCO

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase

TSPO

Tryptophan-rich sensory protein

Ub

Ubiquitin

WIPI

WD repeat protein-interacting phosphoinositides

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the J & R Center for Scientific Research at the Weizmann Institute of Science and the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture for supporting our research on autophagy. GG is the incumbent of the Bronfman Chair of Plant Sciences.

Conflicts of Interest

None

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesWeizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

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