Advertisement

Protoplasma

, Volume 239, Issue 1–4, pp 3–14 | Cite as

Brassinosteroids protect Lycopersicon esculentum from cadmium toxicity applied as shotgun approach

  • Shamsul HayatEmail author
  • S. Aiman Hasan
  • Qaiser Hayat
  • Aqil Ahmad
Original Article

Abstract

Surface-sterilized seeds of two tomato cultivars (cv. K-25 and Sarvodya) were soaked in 100 μM CdCl2 for 8 h (shotgun approach). The resulting 59-day-old seedlings were sprayed with 10−8 M of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) or 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) to their foliage. Both cultivars showed significantly different response to Cd stress. Cadmium severely restricted the growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and activity of nitrate reductase (E.C. 1.6.6.1) and carbonic anhydrase (E.C. 4.2.1.1) in Sarvodya as compared to K-25. However, the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly higher in K-25. This result may be considered an indication of better tolerance of the K-25 cultivars to Cd stress. Moreover, the spray of both the brassinosteroids (HBL/EBL) were found very effective in neutralizing the adverse effects generated by metals that reflect in better photosynthetic performance by the cultivars. An interesting aspect of this study is that HBL or EBL spray caused a further increase in proline content and antioxidative enzyme activities, which were already enhanced by Cd stress. This effect of brassinosteroids (HBL/EBL) was more pronounced in K-25 than in Sarvodya, representing the tolerance and adoptable behavior of K-25.

Keywords

Brassinosteroids Enzymatic antioxidants Photosynthesis Tomato 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions. This work was funded by University Grants Commission [Project No. 32-403/2006 (SR)], New Delhi, India.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Alam MM, Hayat S, Ali B, Ahmad A (2007) Effect of 28-homobrassinolide treatment on nickel toxicity in Brassica juncea. Photosynthetica 45:139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali B, Hayat S, Hasan SA, Ahmad A (2006) Effect of root applied 28-homobrassinolide on the performance of Lycopersicon esculentum. Sci Hort 110:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali B, Hayat S, Ahmad A (2007) 28-Homobrassinolide ameliorates the saline stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Environ Exp Bot 59:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali B, Hasan SA, Hayat S, Hayat Q, Yadav S, Fariduddin Q, Ahmad A (2008) A role for brassinosteroids in the amelioration of aluminium stress through antioxidant system in mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek). Environ Exp Bot 62:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Astolfi S, Zuch S, Passera C (2005) Effect of cadmium on H+-ATPase activity of plasma membrane vesicles isolated from roots of different S supplied maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Plant Sci 169:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajguz A (2000) Effect of brassinosteroids on nucleic acid and protein content in cultured cell of Chlorella vulgaris. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balakhnina T, Kosobryukhov A, Ivanov A, Kreslavskii V (2005) The effect of cadmium on CO2 exchange, variable fluorescence of chlorophyll, and the level of antioxidant enzymes in pea leaves. Russian J Plant Physiol 52:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barcelo J, Poschenrieder CH (1990) Plant water relations are affected by heavy metal stress: a review. Plant Nutr 13:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baryle A, Crrier P, Franck F, Coulomb C, Sahut C, Havaux M (2001) Leaf chlorosis in oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) grown on cadmium polluted soil: causes and consequences for photosynthesis and growth. Planta 212:696–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bates LS, Walden RT, Tearse ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beauchamp LO, Fridovich I (1971) Superoxide dismutase improved assays applicable to acrylamide gels. Annals of Biochem 44:276–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell HW (1999) Nitrate reductase structure, function and regulation bridging the gap between biochemistry and physiology. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:277–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chance B, Maehly AC (1956) Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods Enzymol 2:764–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chugh LK, Gupta VK, Sawhney SK (1992) Effect of cadmium on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in pea seedlings. Phytochem 31:395–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa G, Morel JL (1994) Water relations, gas exchange and amino acid content in Cd-treated lettuce. Plant Physiol Biochem 32:561–570Google Scholar
  16. Cuin TA, Shabala S (2007) Compatible solutes reduce ROS-induced potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Cell Environ 30:875–885CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dwivedi RS, Randhawa NS (1974) Evolution of a rapid test of the hidden hunger of zinc in plants. Plant Soil 40:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ekmekci Y, Tanyolac D, Beycan A (2008) Effects of cadmium on antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic activities in leaves of two maize cultivars. J Plant Physiol 165:600–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gomes-Junior RA, Moldes CA, Delite FS, Pompeu GB, Gratas PL, Mazzafera P, Lea PJ, Azevedo RA (2006) Antioxidant metabolism of coffee cell suspension cultures in response to cadmium. Chemosphere 65:1330–1337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gouia H, Suzuki A, Brulferl J, Gharbal MH (2003) Effect of cadmium on the co-ordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in bean seedlings. J Plant Physiol 160:367–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gratao PL, Polle A, Lea PJ, Azevedo RA (2006) Making the life of heavy metal stressed plants a little easier. Functional Plant Biol 32:481–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hernandez LE, Carpena-Ruiz R, Garate A (1996) Alteration mineral nutrition of pea seedlings exposed to cadmium. J Plant Nutr 19:1581–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hasan SA, Hayat S, Ali B, Ahmad A (2008) 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidant. Environ Poll 151:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hasan SA, Hayat S, Ahmad A (2009) Screening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars against cadmium through shotgun approach. J Plant Inter. 4:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hayat S, Ahmad A (2003) Brassinosteroids: bioactivity and crop productivity. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  26. Hayat S, Ali B, Hasan SA, Ahmad A (2007) Brassinosteroids enhanced the level of antioxidants under cadmium stress in Brassica juncea. Environ Exp Bot 60:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hopkins WJ (1995) Introduction to plant physiology. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  28. Jamali MK, Kazi TG, Arain MB, Afridi HI, Jalbani N, Memon AR (2007) Heavy metal content of vegetables grown in soil, irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Pakistan, using ultrasonic assisted pseudo-digestion. J Agron Crop Sci 193:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jaworski EG (1971) Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 43:1274–1279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kamuro Y, Takatsuto S (1991) Practical application of brassinosteroids in agricultural fields. In: Sakurai A, Yokota T, Clouse SD (eds) Brassinosteroids: steroidal plant hormones. Springer, Tokyo, pp 223–241Google Scholar
  31. Kim HJ, Bracey MH, Barlett SG (1994) Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding carbonic anhydrase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 105:449–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Khripach VA, Zhabinskii VN, Groot AE (1999) Brassinosteroids: a new class of plant hormones. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  33. Khripach V, Zhabinskii V, De Groot A (2000) Twenty years of brassinosteroids: steroidal plant hormones warrant better crops for the XXI century. Ann Bot 86:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khripach VA, Zhabinskii VN, Khripach NB (2003) New practical aspects of brassinosteroids and results of their 10 year agricultural use in Russia and Balarus. In: Hayat S, Ahmad A (eds) Brassinosteroids: bioactivity and crop productivity. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 189–230Google Scholar
  35. Lea PJ, Sodek L, Parry MAJ, Shewry PR, Halford NG (2007) Asparagine in plants. Ann App Biol 150:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li L, van Staden J (1998) Effect of plant growth regulators on the antioxidative system in callus of two maize cultivars subjected to water stress. Plant Growth Regul 24:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu Y, Wand X, Zeng G, Qui D, Gu J, Zhou M, Chau L (2007) Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and response of the ascorbate glutathione cycle in Bechmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. Chemosphere 69:99–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lopez-Millan A-F, Sagardoy R, Solanas M, Abadia A, Abadia J (2009) Cadmium toxicity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown in hydroponics. Environ Exp Bot 65:376–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moya JL, Ros R, Picazo I (1993) Influence of cadmium and nickel on growth net photosynthesis and carbohydrate distribution in rice plants. Photosynth res 36:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nunez M, Mazzateva P, Mazarra LM, Siqueira WJ, Zullo MAT (2003) Influence of brassinosteroid analogue on antioxidant enzymes in rice grown in culture medium with NaCl. Biol Plant 37:67–70Google Scholar
  41. Obata H, Inone N, Umebayshi M (1996) Effect of cadmium on plasma membrane ATPase from plant root differing in tolerance to cadmium. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 42:361–366Google Scholar
  42. Raghuramulu N, Nair MK, Kalyanasundarum S (1983) A manual of laboratory techniques. National Institute of Nutrition, Silver Prints, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  43. Ranganna S (1976) Manual of analysis of fruit and vegetables products. McGraw Hill, New Delhi, p 77Google Scholar
  44. Reddy MP, Vora AB (1986) Changes in pigment composition, hill reaction activity and saccharide metabolism in bajra (Pennisetum typhoides S&H) leaves under NaCl salinity. Photosynthetica 20:50–55Google Scholar
  45. Sadasivam S, Manickam A (1997) Carotenes. In: Sadasivam S, Manickam A (eds) Biochemical methods. New Age International, New Delhi, pp 187–188Google Scholar
  46. Sairam RR (1994) Effect of homobrassinolide application on plant metabolism and grain yield under irrigated and moisture stress conditions of two wheat varieties. Plant Growth Regul 14:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sandalio LM, Dalurzo HC, Gomez M, Romero-Puertas MC, Rio LC (2001) Cadmium-induced changes in the growth and oxidative metabolism of pea plants. J Exp Bot 52:2115–2126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Sasse JM (2003) Physiological action of brassinosteroids: an update. J. Plant Growth Regul 22:276–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh PK, Tewari RK (2003) Cadmium toxicity induced changes in plant water relations and oxidative metabolism of Brassica juncea L. Plants J Environ Biol 24:107–112Google Scholar
  50. Stobort AK, Griffits W, Bukhari I, Sherwood A (1985) The effect of Ca2+ on the biosynthesis of chlorophyll in leaves of barley. Physiol Plant 63:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tiryakioglue M, Eker S, Ozkutku F, Husted S, Lakmake I (2006) Antioxidant defense system and cadmium uptake in barley genotype differing in cadmium tolerance. J Trace Elem Mea Biol 20:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tiwari A, Kumar P, Singh S, Ansari SA (2005) Carbonic anhydrase in relation to higher plants. Photosynthetica 43:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tripathi BN, Gaur JP (2004) Relationship between copper- and zinc-induced oxidative stress and proline accumulation in Scenedesmus sp. Planta 219:397–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (2002) Acceleration of ripening of tomato pericarp disc by brassinosteroids. Phytochem 16:843–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wagner GJ (1993) Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Adv Agron 51:173–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wahid A, Ghani A, Ali I, Ashraf MY (2007) Effect of cadmium on carbon and nitrogen assimilation in shoots of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings. J Agron Crop Sci 193:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang ME, Zhou QX (2006) Joint stress of chlorimuronethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels. Environ Pol 144:572–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yu JQ, Huag LF, Hu WH, Zhou YH, Mao WH, Ye SF, Nogues S (2004) A role of brassinosteroids in the regulation of photosynthesis in Cucumis sativus. J Exp Bot 55:1135–1143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shamsul Hayat
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Aiman Hasan
    • 1
  • Qaiser Hayat
    • 1
  • Aqil Ahmad
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Physiology Section, Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied SciencesHigher College of TechnologyAl-KhuwairSultanate of Oman

Personalised recommendations