Experimental and theoretical studies on mechanical creep of 1–3 piezocomposites
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Piezoelectric materials like bulk PZT are often subjected to mechanical creep loads. But being brittle, these undergo premature failure. Hence, piezocomposites are used instead of bulk PZT. Piezocomposites are viscoelastic in nature owing to the presence of a ductile epoxy matrix. In this paper, mechanical creep is studied for 1–3 piezocomposites of different fiber volume fractions under various levels of compressive prestress. Experiments are performed to understand the difference in their electromechanical response. The creep strain is found to increase with the increase in matrix volume fraction and stress level. The creep polarization is observed to decrease with the decrease in fiber volume fraction and stress level. The degradation in the piezocoupling coefficient is observed to be the maximum for the piezocomposite 35% fiber volume fraction and the least for the bulk PZT. This is attributed to the time-dependent permanent re-orientation of ferroelastic domains by 90\(^\circ \) during the mechanical creep phenomenon. Finally, a viscoelastic model comprising of two parallel Kelvin–Voigt elements is proposed to capture the creep strain. The creep strain is decomposed into the ferroelastic strain and anelastic strain. Creep polarization is computed from the ferroelastic strain. The model predictions are found to be in agreement with the experimental results.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support by the Naval Research Board (Project No.: NRB-379/MAT-16-17).
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