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Acta Mechanica

, Volume 227, Issue 1, pp 229–252 | Cite as

How interface size, density, and viscosity affect creep and relaxation functions of matrix-interface composites: a micromechanical study

  • Mehran Shahidi
  • Bernhard Pichler
  • Christian HellmichEmail author
Open Access
Original Paper

Abstract

Matrix-inclusion composites are known to exhibit interaction among the inclusions. When it comes to the special case of inclusions in form of flat interfaces, interaction among interfaces would be clearly expected, but the two-dimensional nature of interfaces implies quite surprising interaction properties. This is the motivation to analyze how interaction among two different classes of microscopic interfaces manifests itself in macroscopic creep and relaxation functions of matrix-interface composites. To this end, we analyze composites made of a linear elastic solid matrix hosting parallel interfaces, and we consider that creep and relaxation of such composites result from micro-sliding within adsorbed fluid layers filling the interfaces. The latter idea was recently elaborated in the framework of continuum micromechanics, exploiting eigenstress homogenization schemes, see Shahidi et al. (Eur J Mech A Solids 45:41–58, 2014). After a rather simple mathematical exercise, it becomes obvious that creep functions do not reflect any interface interaction. Mathematical derivation of relaxation functions, however, turns out to be much more challenging because of pronounced interface interaction. Based on a careful selection of solution methods, including Laplace transforms and the method of non-dimensionalization, we analytically derive a closed-form expression of the relaxation functions, which provides the sought insight into interface interaction. The seeming paradox that no interface interaction can be identified from creep functions, while interface interaction manifests itself very clearly in the relaxation functions of matrix-interface materials, is finally resolved based on stress and strain average rules for interfaced composites. They clarify that uniform stress boundary conditions lead to a direct external control of average stress and strain states in the solid matrix, and this prevents interaction among interfaces. Under uniform strain boundary conditions, in turn, interfacial dislocations do influence the average stress and strain states in the solid matrix, and this results in pronounced interface interaction.

Keywords

Interface Interaction Solid Matrix Relaxation Function Characteristic Relaxation Time Interfacial Dislocation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

a

Coefficient of ordinary differential equation in γ

a1

Radius of first interface family

a2

Radius of second interface family

AI

Relaxation capacity associated with characteristic time τrelax,I

AII

Relaxation capacity associated with characteristic time τrelax,II

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Third-order strain-to-dislocation downscaling tensor, quantifying the concentration of macroscopic strain into the average dislocation encountered across the interfaces; j = 1, 2 refers to the two interface families

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Third-order influence tensor describing the influence of macroscopic stress on the dislocation of interfaces; j = 1, 2 refers to the two interface families

b

Coefficient of ordinary differential equation in γ

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Third-order influence tensor describing the influence of interface traction on the macroscopic stress; j = 1, 2 refers to the two interface families

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Third-order influence tensor describing the influence of interface traction on the macroscopic strain; j = 1, 2 refers to the two interface families

cj

Constant used in Laplace transformation method, related to dislocation of interface family j = 1, 2

Cj

Integration constant used in the elimination-non-dimensionalization method, related to the dislocation of interface family j = 1, 2

C̄1

Constant appearing in relaxation function

C̄2

Constant appearing in relaxation function

\({\mathcal{C}_j}\)

Domain of interface belonging to interface family j = 1, 2

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Fourth-order elastic stiffness tensor of solid

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Inverse of Open image in new window

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Fourth-order homogenized stiffness tensor of matrix-interface composite

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Inverse of Open image in new window

dj

Interface density parameter of interface family j = 1, 2

Dj

Integration constant used in the elimination-non-dimensionalization method, related to dislocation of interface family j = 1, 2

D̄1

Constant appearing in relaxation function

D̄2

Constant appearing in relaxation function

ej

Constant used in Laplace transformation method, related to the dislocation of interface family j = 1, 2

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Unit base vectors of Cartesian coordinate system

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Second-order tensor of macroscopic strain

Exz

Shear component of Open image in new window

Es

Young’s modulus of the solid

j

Index for interface phase (family)

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Symmetric fourth-order identity tensor

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Deviatoric part of Open image in new window

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volumetric part of Open image in new window

Jxzxz

Creep function

\({\mathcal{L}}\)

Laplace transformation operator

\({\mathcal{L}^{-1}}\)

Back transformation operator from Laplace space to time domain

\({ \mathcal{N}_j }\)

Number of interfaces per unit volume of a matrix-interface composite; j = 1, 2 refers to the two interface families

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Outward unit normal at any point of the boundary of the volume element representing the composite material

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Unit vector oriented orthogonal to the interface family j = 1, 2

Rxzxz

Relaxation function

s

As subscript: index for solid phase

s

As variable: Laplace space parameter

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Interface traction vector acting on interface phase j = 1, 2

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Fourth-order morphology tensor for 2D interface inclusion (“sharp crack” morphology)

Tj,x

Shear component in x-direction, of traction vector Open image in new window

Tj,y

Shear component in y-direction, of traction vector Open image in new window

x, y, z

Cartesian coordinates

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Position vector

γ

Macroscopic engineering strain (related to E xz )

γj

Strain-like variable related to dislocation of interface family j = 1, 2

γj,h

Solution of homogeneous differential equation in γ j

γj,p

Particular solution of non-homogeneous differential equation in γ j

γj

Laplace transform of function γ j

δ

Kronecker delta

Δμ

Loss of effective stiffness during relaxation test

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Second-order tensor of microscopic linear strain

ηi,j

Viscosity of interface family j = 1, 2

ηj

Differential equation-related “viscosity constant” related to interface family j = 1, 2

μs

Shear modulus of isotropic solid matrix

μj

Differential equation-related “stiffness constant” related to interface family j = 1, 2

νs

Poisson’s ratio of isotropic solid matrix

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Displacement vector

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(average) Dislocation vector of interface phase j = 1, 2

[[ξ]]j,x

Shear component of Open image in new window

[[ξ]]j,z

Normal component of Open image in new window

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Second-order tensor of microscopic Cauchy stresses

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Second-order tensor of macroscopic Cauchy stresses

Σxz

Shear component of Open image in new window

τcreep,j

Characteristic creep time related to dislocation in interface family j = 1, 2

τrelax,I

First characteristic relaxation time of material system comprising two interface families

τrelax,II

Second characteristic relaxation time of material systme comprising two interface families

Ω

Volume of the matrix-interface composite

Ωs

Volume occupied by the solid phase

Partial derivative

:

Second-order tensor contraction

\({\dot{\bullet}}\)

Partial derivative with respect to time (“rate”), of quantity “•”

\({\otimes }\)

Dyadic product

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© The Author(s) 2015

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehran Shahidi
    • 1
  • Bernhard Pichler
    • 1
  • Christian Hellmich
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Mechanics of Materials and StructuresTU Wien -Vienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria

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