Influence of obstacles on rapid granular flows
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One means of preventing areas from being hit by avalanches is to divert the flow by appropriately constituted obstacles. Thus, there arises the question how a given avalanche flow is modified by obstructions and how the diverted flow depth and direction emerge. In this paper rapid gravity-driven dense granular flows, partly blocked by obstacles with different shapes, sizes and positions, are numerically investigated by solving the hyperbolic Savage-Hutter equations with an appropriate integration technique. The influences of the obstructions on the granular flows are graphically demonstrated and discussed for a finite mass and a steady inflow of granular material down an inclined plane, respectively. These flows are accompanied by shocks induced by both the presence of the obstacles and the transition of granular flows from an inclined surface into a horizontal run-out zone when the velocity transits from its supercritical to its subcritical state. The numerical results show that the theory is capable of capturing key qualitative features, such as shocks wave and particle-free regions.
KeywordsDynamical System Shock Wave Fluid Dynamics Granular Material Transport Phenomenon
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